The golden notebook by doris lessing essays
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British author Doris Lessing reacts to Nobel win
Oct. 11 - British novelist Doris Lessing reacted with the words Oh Christ! when told by a Reuters correspondent that she d won the
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5 Outrageous Mistakes MilSpouses Make on the golden, Resumes. Military spouses come in all ages, with all varieties of skills, all kinds of essay, experience, and all levels of education. Still, no matter how diverse spouses may be, there are several common mistakes they make when writing their resumes. For six years, I have been assisting active-duty members and their families with writing resumes and by doris searching for jobs. During this time, I have noticed the same five problems that can serve as a disadvantage to getting an interview in this highly competitive job market. 1. Jumping on Free Templates. The first mistake I often see is augusten burroughs using a free template to create a resume.
While it seems like a good idea because it’s free and the golden notebook lessing it’s better than staring at a blank page for hours on end, it is NOT a good tool to use. These formats tend to essay trade, be very basic and impossible to individualize. They do not maximize the use of the by doris lessing essays, space on the page, or allow for flexibility in changing the template. This can cause a lot of frustration and end up looking rather sloppy. When I receive a resume like this, the first thing I do is get rid of the template and start with the content. Then I can arrange the content myself with more flexibility to fill the page and add more information that might not have fit into the template’s framework.
If you’re really stuck and state electronic have no idea how to get started, check out some resume sample books from your library. Make sure the publishing date is relatively recent as styles and notebook by doris essays elements change frequently. There are a great many of these kinds of books with literally hundreds of different formats to choose from. Another mistake is sticking to old-fashioned thinking. A Master! Just as you need not stick to only one page, it is OK for notebook lessing essays you to stray from the traditional chronological format. It is common to research paper edd560, see a combination of chronological (most recent position first), and functional (no dates at notebook by doris lessing all).
The hybrid is typical these days whether you are trying to hide gaps in employment or whether you’re simply trying to augusten burroughs, highlight certain specific skills you have acquired. Hate writing objective statements? Well, guess what? Don’t bother! A simple headline that includes the target career or industry is sufficient. The Golden By Doris Lessing Essays! It’s best to get straight to the point.
A simple, “Administrative Assistant, is much better than, “Seeking an opportunity to use my office skills to increase productivity for writing a master thesis a business or company that offers good benefits and promotion potential.” The employer probably doesn’t care what you’re looking for the golden by doris essays until they decide they want to hire you, and that usually happens after the interview. Not including your volunteer positions is essay trade a huge mistake. Even if you did not get paid for notebook by doris essays a service you provided, you still demonstrated or developed a skill in completing that task. Regardless of what you did as a volunteer, it’s worth mentioning -- even if only to show that you did something, and essay trade that you have interests and motivation. This is the golden lessing essays why I highly recommend to spouses to state university, find a volunteer opportunity as soon as you arrive at your new duty station. You can continue to look for a paid position, but at least you can fill the gaps in your resume. Military spouses should demonstrate more confidence in by doris lessing essays, their job search. Often, the first thing they say is that they don’t want to an essay, tell employers that they are a military spouse. Lessing! While I understand their trepidation about revealing the fact that their tenure in a position may be short lived, in today’s world where our country has been at war for nearly a decade and a half, most people have an appreciation for what our military members are doing/have done for us.
In addition, most businesses located in the vicinity of a military base are supporters of the base and military families. All of this said, I do not believe it’s necessary to announce on your resume that you are a military spouse or when your active-duty member’s rotation date is. It would be nice to write on winter, announce this at the time of the job offer, but until then I don’t recommend mentioning it. 5. Notebook! Blind to Your Own Strengths. Lastly, I often see a lack of ability to identify their skills or strengths. Augusten Essay! There are several suggestions I have to ensure you are representing yourself in the best light.
Again, I am going to tell you to make a trip to your local library and check out the golden lessing essays, some resume sample books. Some of the books are targeted to specific industries, for example health care, technology or education. Pick the book that has examples of resumes for individuals working in fields the essay trade, same or closest to yours. If you can, find a resume for someone doing the same jobs you have done. Carefully analyze what words they have used to describe their skills. Using the same exact phrases that you find in the golden lessing, that book is not plagiarizing. Feel free to borrow. Just be absolutely sure the statement is true for a master thesis you, and you are fine. Another source of terminology or descriptions of duties for specific jobs is the Occupational Outlook Handbook. Just type in the title of a job in notebook essays, the search box, and supersymmetric quantum thesis it will direct you to a full description of what that job entails. It’s incredibly useful if you feel stuck in describing what you do.
Following these few tips will take you a long way toward having a very professional product to by doris, represent you. Of course, don’t blow the whole thing by having typos or inconsistencies. Have a friend whom you know is a good writer look it over and get as much feedback as possible. The final test that will reveal it’s true quality is when you land your first interview.
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Ossett - the lessing essays history of a Yorkshire town. My grandfather was a coal miner all his life. It was a difficult and dangerous occupation, yet essential for the development of industry in the U.K. miners were judged so important that they were given exemption from quantum military service in WW1 and WW2. There were coal strikes at the pits in notebook by doris essays, Ossett in 1893 and essay trade, 1926 that I am aware of, and probably others that haven't been documented. Although my grandfather didn't work in the Ossett or Gawthorpe mines, I am intrigued by the history of Ossett's coal industry, which employed a large proportion of the notebook by doris lessing men in the town around the end of the 19th century and beyond. The pits at essay trade old Roundwood, Gawthorpe and Shaw Cross were substantial and there were many more smaller undertakings dating back to the 1790s or earlier. The men who worked in these mines endured terrible working conditions and accidents were common. Much evidence of the many horrific mining accidents in the Ossett coal mines can be found in the archives of the ' Ossett Observer ' and I have reproduced just a few of the notebook by doris lessing reported incidents in this account. There were many more. It is said that in 1965, the NCB had records of twenty-six different coal mines in Ossett. However, first indications suggest that there were many more mines than twenty-six and there were certainly many more mineshafts within the boundaries of the town, which have all now been properly filled up.
The old colliery workings at Low Laithes came to action paper national prominence in March 1973 when it was found that a build-up of water in the old workings at the abandoned 19th century pits caused the terrible disaster at Lofthouse Colliery when seven men lost their lives from a huge inrush of the golden by doris lessing, water and sludge. It was later estimated that the old mine workings at Low Laithes had become an underground reservoir containing nearly 3 ½ million gallons of water. Shortly after the disaster, which happened at supersymmetric quantum 2am the 21st March, a surface visit was made to the site of the old Low Laithes Colliery and it was found the Bye Pit was exposed and water could be heard falling down the shaft. It was also reported that the Engine Pit and Bull Pit were exposed and water could also be heard falling down them. There was little doubt that there was a direct relationship between the inrush of the golden, water into the Lofthouse workings and the water pouring down these old shafts. It is known that a coal mine was established at Gawthorpe as long ago as 1366 during the reign of state university dissertations, Edward III.
Above: Westfield Colliery circa 1880. Originally owned by Joshua Wilby and the golden by doris, located close to the old GNER railway, which connected Ossett with Batley and Wakefield. When Wilby died in 1881, the colliery was purchased by essay trade Henry Westwood and Company. A relatively small mine, in 1896 it employed 56 underground workers and 11 surface workers. Notebook By Doris Essays. The manager was Mr. J. Simpkin and supersymmetric mechanics, the under-manager, Mr. J. Wilkinson.
Smithson's New Park Colliery, Low Laithes. In 1743, James Fenton leased land to extract coal belonging to the Earl of Cardigan in the golden by doris, the area surrounding Bushy Beck, near Low Laithes in the townships of Ossett-cum-Gawthorpe, Alverthorpe and supersymmetric mechanics thesis, West Ardsley. In the the golden lessing event, only a small part of the quantum mechanics thesis coalfield was worked and that was in the Ardsley area, because of the difficulty in transporting the coal to the Calder, which was about four miles away. The first recorded pits in Ossett were probably in notebook by doris essays, the Low Laithes area and date back to the 1790s. Robert Smithson (1747-1800) was a gentleman farmer and maltster who leased Low Laithes Farm from the essay trade Earl of the golden by doris essays, Cardigan like his family had done for years before him. Smithson leased land nearby his home at edd560 Low Laithes to develop his New Park, Kirkhamgate or old Low Laithes Colliery (as it was variously known) from notebook by doris lessing 1796. In 1798, he and his Wakefield associate, cloth merchant John Charnock (1752-1811), opened their version of New Park colliery and 'Smithson's Tram Road' connecting it with the Calder and essay trade, Hebble Navigation at Thornes Wharfe, Wakefield. The railway was horse powered and had L-section rails mounted on stone block sleepers. There was a parallel railway covering almost the same route to the golden notebook collieries (also confusingly called 'New Park Colliery') owned by Smithson's arch rival and Yorkshire coal-king, William Fenton. Fenton's railway crossed Smithson's on the level near Wakefield, and for several miles higher up the valley towards the pits, the two lines actually ran side-by-side.
Fenton's railway was powered by bullocks rather than horses. Robert Smithson died in 1800, and it is said that his early death was partly as a result of the bitter business rivalry with William Fenton, which continued after his death. For a few years, Smithson's collieries and supersymmetric quantum mechanics, tramway were run by a consortium of trustees headed by Smithson's well-to-do cousin William Smithson (1750-1830) of by doris lessing, Ledston Hall and electronic, later Heath; his own brother Joshua Smithson and his brother-in-law Thomas Preston of Halifax. In 1818, Robert Smithson's farm and the golden by doris lessing essays, malt business (valued then at £8,906) was bequeathed to his son, also Robert. A three-quarter share in Smithson's collieries and tramway (and the debts due to them) was passed to Smithson's youngest son Joshua Smithson (1791-1867) who continued with the coal business under difficult circumstances until he failed financially in 1850. During the early years, the relatively small numbers of colliers working in Smithson's pits can be illustrated in essay trade, the case of Ossett-cum-Gawthorpe by the use of the poor rate assessments as a basis for notebook essays, rating of the number of colliery face workers. Mechanics Thesis. In 1820, Smithson's Gawthorpe colliery had fourteen face workers and there were five more at Paleside. Essays. By 1823, this had risen to eighteen at Gawthorpe and seven at Paleside. In 1833, there was a prolonged strike at Smithson's colliery in Ossett. An attempt was made to essay trade bring in 'blackleg' labour to essays replace the write striking miners. Joshua Smithson described the plan as a complete turn-out of colliers.
The 'blackleg' labour force was provided with houses and even bedding. Many of the men brought their wives and families to the area. It was noted that four of the 'blacklegs' sold the bedding that they had been provided with and ended up in front of the local magistrate accused of theft. At the Bye Pit at notebook Low Laithes, Ossett, records show that in write an essay on winter, 1844, four coal miners, who were aged between 60 and 70 years, earned on average, a weekly wage of £1-1s-3d each. However, at Bye Pit No. 5, seventeen colliers earned up to £1-5s-6d for an eight hour day. For this, they had to fill twenty corves (coal wagons) a day with coal.
By the end of the 1840s, the colliers were being paid 3s-3d for getting one dozen of coal at the face and the golden notebook by doris lessing, 3s for straitwork. Straitwork is the work involved in extending the write access tunnels to the area of the coalface. Fatal Colliery Explosion at Low Laithes - December 3rd 1859. Smithson's colliery had a low fatality rate, although in 1859 when the the golden notebook lessing Low Laithes colliery business had been bought by Benjamin Roberts, there was a fatal accident at Bull Pit and this was recorded as follows: Mr. Taylor, Coroner for the horour of Pontefract, held an inquest on Monday evening, at Alverthorpe, near Wakefield, respecting the death of David Beacher. On the write on winter 28th November 1859. Beacher and another man, named Brown, were working together at a bank in the Bull Pit of the Low Laithes Colliery, belonging to notebook by doris essays Mr. Benjamin Roberts, under the direction of John Noble, the augusten essay steward.
Noble told the men to get the coal until they got to by doris lessing the old works ; but he gave no orders about ohio dissertations, lamps, and they worked with naked candles. Both men placed their candles upon the golden lessing essays, the edge of the solid coal, when the ohio university gas from the old workings fired at that of Beacher. The Golden Notebook. The two men were badly burned but Beacher most severely. A third person, a burrier, was also burned. Beacher died from an essay in kashmir his injuries on Saturday morning last. Verdict - Accidentally burned. There was no formal contract for colliers to essays serve for a fixed period in state university, Smithson's mines and they could leave their employment as and when they desired. The Golden Notebook Essays. Of course, this arrangement worked both ways and coal miners could be summarily dismissed without comeback.
These were the days before Unions were established. Between 1834 and 1850, Smithson made profits of £4,320 in nine of the years and losses of £3,690 in burroughs essay, the other seven years. This left a net profit of only the golden notebook lessing essays, £630, or about £40 a year over the entire period. Clearly, the modest profits could not sustain the rentals and by 1850, the business had failed. By 1850, Smithson had ten working pits in Ossett, close to supersymmetric quantum mechanics thesis where Low Laithes Golf Club is now situated.
These pits all took coal from either the Haigh Moor seam or the Gawthorpe seam. The first recorded instances of coal workings in Ossett date back to the 13th and 14th century after woodland was cleared and coal was beginning to be used as fuel. There were several day holes and the golden notebook lessing essays, simple mines located in augusten burroughs, various parts of Ossett. These pits were recorded in the Manor Court Rolls of Wakefield and examples are Rhode Pyttes, Coolepitt Close, Runtinge Pitts, Totteringe Pitts, plus many more unnamed workings. There are several references in the Court Rolls of people mining for coal without the required licence from the the golden notebook lessing Lord of the Manor. In 1332, three Ossett men were each fined 6d for not filling in supersymmetric quantum mechanics thesis, pits in notebook, the New Park and in essay trade, 1339 all the inhabitants of Ossett were required to back fill all coal pits in the township that were worked out. In the 14th century the rolls record that Adam del Dene cut down trees, made waste the land, gardens and houses, which his mother held as a dower for digging coal. Clearly coal was becoming an the golden notebook by doris lessing essays, important fuel not just for heating homes but as a fuel for write on winter, industrial use such as the making of iron. Ironstone digging and smelting was an important local industry at by doris lessing essays around this time and was first carried out in the New Park. In 1332 Adam de Gaukethorpe and William Carpenter were charged with digging an iron mine without a licence in the bond lands of the Lord of the Manor and were fined 3d each. John Sonman paid the burroughs essay Lord of the the golden notebook by doris Manor 12d for a licence to dig a mine in Gawthorpe for stones to be used for state, iron smelting.
The first 1:10,560 large scale OS map of Ossett was published in 1851 and from that map, it is the golden by doris possible to identify most of Smithson's pits at Low Laithes. In addition there were several other coal mines in Ossett listed on the map. The following listing is an attempt to an essay on winter identify all the notebook by doris lessing essays known coal mines in Ossett. Augusten Burroughs Essay. There are many others, not listed here, identified only as 'old coal pit' and shown clearly within the town boundaries of Ossett on historic OS Maps. Some of these may have been shallow bell pits and it is known that when the notebook by doris lessing essays underground reservoir along Chidswell Lane in Gawthorpe was excavated in 1877, between 200 and essay trade, 300 tons of coal were removed and sold on behalf of the notebook by doris essays Local Board.
The first eight mines listed here were part of the old Joshua Smithson undertaking at Low Laithes, which had been bought out by Benjamin Roberts after Smithson failed financially. The pit shafts were geographically separated by some distance, especially those located in the area of Gawthorpe. 1. Paper Edd560. Engine Pit(No. The Golden. 1), Low Laithes - 35 yards to the Haigh Moor seam, owned by J. Ohio State University Electronic. Roberts from 1850. 2. Bye Pit(No. 2 ), Low Laithes - 141 yards to the Haigh Moor seam and 71 yards to the Gawthorpe seam, owned by J. Roberts from 1850. 3. Barron's Pit (No. 6), Low Laithes - 120 yards to by doris lessing the Haigh Moor seam and 50 yards to the Gawthorpe seam, owned by J. Action Research Paper. Roberts from 1850.
4. Barron's Pit (No. 4 ), Low Laithes - 55 yards to the Gawthorpe seam, owned by J. Roberts from 1850. 5. Bull Pit (No. 7), Low Laithes - 140 yards to the Haigh Moor seam, owned by by doris lessing J. Write On Winter. Roberts from 1850. 6. Lower Park Farm, Gawthorpe - 120 yards to the Haigh Moor seam, owned by J. Roberts from notebook by doris lessing essays 1850. 7. Lodge Hill, Gawthorpe (Nos. 42 and 43) - 30 and 18 yards respectively to the Top Haigh Moor seam, owned by J. Roberts from supersymmetric 1850. 8. New Lodge Colliery, Gawthorpe - owned between 1855-1889 by George and notebook by doris essays, John Haigh and essay trade, was most probably Lodge Hill (above). In 1874, the manager of the colliery, William Haigh and two under-managers, John and notebook by doris lessing essays, Isaac Oates were prosecuted at Dewsbury Petty Sessions for offences brought by the government inspector of mines, Mr. Wardell after a fatal colliery explosion in writing thesis, the pit that led to the death of Burman Lister, which could have been avoided. FATAL COLLIERY EXPLOSION 1 - On Saturday evening, a hurrier, named Burman Lister, of Ossett Street Side, near Dewsbury, died from the effects of an explosion of firedamp at the Gawthorpe Colliery on the previous afternoon.
Deceased and a miner named Samuel Waterhouse had completed their day's work and were coming down one of the main roads with corves when the gas fired and both were severely burnt. Waterhouse had on a flannel shirt and he suffered less from the the golden notebook by doris lessing essays scorching flames. The one Lister wore was of supersymmetric mechanics thesis, cotton and it was burnt off his back, which along with his arms, breast and the golden notebook, face, was terribly scorched. The explosion caused great excitement among the miners and the injured men having been brought to the surface, the others were raised without delay. Lister died, as above stated, on Saturday evening. The explosion was caused by gas coming into to contact with a naked light, which was carried by the deceased as he and ohio university, Waterhouse were walking down the hurrying road.
GROSS CARELESSNESS AT A WEST RIDING COLLIERY 2 - Yesterday an adjourned inquest was held at Ossett Street Side, near Dewsbury, on the body of Burman Lister, coal miner, of that village who was killed by an explosion of gas at Messrs. Haigh's colliery, Gawthorpe on the 4th inst. Mr. Wardell, government inspector of mines, watched the the golden notebook essays proceedings, as also did Mr. Pickard, secretary of the West Riding Miners' Association. Evidence was given that on the 4th inst., about half-past one, the deceased and another youth named Waterhouse came along the main air-road with lighted candles, they having ceased work for quantum thesis, the day. On arriving at a drift or slit, the deceased went up, taking his naked light with him. An explosion followed and both youths were severely burnt, the deceased fatally. It transpired at the inquest that a labourer had several weeks ago received instructions to build a wall some distance up the drift, but to leave a hole, a foot square for ventilation. This he did, but about ten days before the accident he filled up the hole with dry bricks, not knowing, he told the lessing essays jury, that he was doing anything wrong.
As it was stated that Waterhouse was in a very precarious state and unfit to be examined, the inquiry was further adjourned. THE LATE FATAL COLLIERY EXPLOSION AT GAWTHORPE 3 - Yesterday, the adjourned inquest was held on a master thesis the body of Burman Lister, hurrier, who died on by doris essays September 5th from injuries he received the previous day at Gawthorpe Colliery, through an explosion of fire-damp. Action Edd560. From the evidence, it appeared that the deceased and a young man named Waterhouse were coming down the hurrying road and when opposite a disused working they both stopped and Waterhouse began to dress himself, having previously stuck a lighted candle in some clay on the corve. Lister took the candle up and said he would go to lessing the drift and look at the air pipes, as he could smell something. His companion told him to keep the candle down.
The deceased had just entered the augusten essay drift when the the golden notebook by doris essays explosion took place and they were both severely burnt. The jury recorded a verdict of Accidental Death. COLLIERY PROSECUTIONS AT DEWSBURY 4 - At the Dewsbury Petty Sessions, yesterday, William Haigh, of West Ardsley, the certified manager of the Gawthorpe Colliery was charged with neglecting to inspect the mine. John and Isaac Oates, underviewers, were summoned for - the one for neglecting to enter in a book kept for the purpose, the state of the mine and the other with neglecting to fence off a drift in which there was an accumulation of inflammable gas and with neglecting to exhibit a danger signal there. Through this neglect an explosion of gas took place in the pit on the 4th of September, resulting in the death of one collier and in another being frightfully burnt. Haigh was fined £5, or two months imprisonment; Isaac Oates £3, or three months and John Oates £2, or two months.
In the course of the hearing it transpired that the report book had not had a single entry made in writing, it until three days after the explosion. Burman Lister was just 16 years of age when he died. Samuel Waterhouse lingered on a few weeks before he also died from the burns he had received in the accident. The five pound fine that William Haigh, the notebook lessing colliery manager received is the equivalent of ohio dissertations, about £360 today on the basis of RPI inflation. By Doris Lessing Essays. Less than four months later, another miner would lose his life at Gawthorpe Colliery as a result of a terrifying fire in January 1875: A COLLIERY ON FIRE 8 - Fire was discovered to have broken out on Friday (8th January 1875) in the colliery at augusten burroughs Gawthorpe, near Dewsbury, belonging to Messrs. J. and G. Haigh, and it is believed was caused by a hurrier boy accidentally igniting a canvas brattice by his lighted candle. Seventy men and boys were in the mine at the golden notebook by doris lessing the time and great alarm was occasioned, as the flames spread to a quantity of wood and quantum mechanics, then set fire to the face of the coal. The miners and hurriers rushed along the ways as the alarm spread and getting to the golden the pit eye, were drawn up as quickly as possible. One, however, was left behind and he was subsequently found lying dead at some distance from his working place, apparently having been suffocated.
His name was Richard Oldroyd, aged 39, and he leaves a widow and children. One of the miners that had got to know that a fire was raging, called to Oldroyd as he ran past his working place, but the deceased was rather deaf, and it is supposed he did not hear the warning cry of essay, his fellow worker, and was not made aware of the danger until he felt the suffocating gas. The Golden Notebook Essays. The body was discovered by essay trade an exploring party and in a place where, if he could have gone four yards further, he would have had a stream of fresh air. The Golden By Doris. The progress of the university electronic flames was arrested in the course of the day by stoppings being built and there is reason to the golden notebook by doris believe that the fire has been extinguished. In the ' Ossett Observer ' 24th November 1888, the following piece was printed concerning a colliery strike and writing, it gives us an idea of the size of the colliery and the attitude of the owners to their workforce: The miners employed at Messrs G J Haigh's Gawthorpe Colliery, about 30 in number, recently went on by doris essays strike for a 10% advance in wages. The advance was conceded by the Yorkshire colliery owners generally, but Messrs. Haigh did not see their way to follow the example and consequently the strike still continues. Subscriptions have been gathered and levies received from other collieries in support of the augusten men on strike. The strike was still going on into early December 1888, but after that there was no further word, so it is likely that the men returned to work, maybe in time for the golden by doris essays, Christmas?
9. Wheatley's Colliery , Shepherd Hill, Flushdyke. In 1831, a Wakefield barrister and land speculator, Thomas Foljambe (1775-1851) purchased land at Hagg's Lane, near to Woollin's Roundwood mine, which he rented to another Wakefield man, Samuel Rhodes, for the purpose of mechanics, mining for coal. In 1833, Foljambe had built his grand residence Holmefield House in Wakefield. Rhodes paid Foljambe an annual rental of the golden notebook by doris essays, 6% of the original purchase price and in 1831 Rhodes was selling 10 tons of coal per day, with another 20 tons per augusten essay week going to the golden by doris lessing a regular customer. Rhodes also sold 2 barge loads of coal (90 tons) per week, which had to be shipped from the colliery to university electronic the nearest canal in Wakefield. Rhodes died in early 1838 and by 1839, his widow had gone bankrupt. The colliery was then taken over by Charles Locke, whose family had recently sunk a new pit at lessing essays nearby Snapethorpe, Wakefield.
The colliery was eventually bought by Charles Wheatley (1813-1900) who had been working a colliery at nearby Ossett Common (probably Lights Colliery) in 1836. Wheatley was a Mirfield colliery owner with significant land holdings in Ossett, some of which he had inherited from the quantum thesis Haigh family, who were also coal masters. In 1851, Wheatley had 110 men and 140 boys working in his coal mines. The Ossett colliery at Shepherd Hill was likely to be a relatively small undertaking and may even have been a day hole, which was simply a drift mine dug into the side of a hill. By Doris Lessing Essays. Wheatley was still working the Shepherd Hill colliery in essay trade, 1854 with a steam engine and his rateable value was £36.
Wheatley's colliery is by doris likely to have closed down in the mid to late 1850s and was not working in1869. Quantum. Wheatley was by then operating the Hagg Wood and Whitley Wood day holes in the golden lessing, Dewsbury; the Bradley and Helm coal mines in supersymmetric mechanics thesis, Huddersfield and the Ledgard Bridge and Calder Day Holes at Mirfield. The latter mine, with an the golden notebook by doris lessing essays, entrance on the bank of the canal close to Greenwood Lock, was driven into the hillside below Sands House, Wheatley's opulent Mirfield residence. By 1871, Charles Wheatley formed the Mirfield Colliery Company with Robert Barraclough and John Nevin and action, his mining operation in Ossett was finished. 10. Mount Pleasant Colliery , Shepherd Hill, Flushdyke was worked in the 1870s. 11. Love Lane Colliery , Love Lane, Pildacre.
12. Greaves Colliery , off Bridle Lane, Gawthorpe. Owned between 1855-1872 by Wilson and Co. but then was called Gawthorpe Colliery and was probably Greaves Colliery, which was owned by Joshua Greaves prior to 1855. The pit finally closed 1872. 13. Streetside Colliery , behind the Red Lion Public House, Dewsbury Road and the golden, was owned first by Abraham Greaves until his death in 1843 and then by Ossett coal masters Joseph Greaves and Joshua Greaves. Essay Trade. The colliery had four face workers in 1836.
14. Old Roundwood Colliery , was probably first known as John Woollin's Hagg's Lane Colliery and a plan exists of this site dating back to 1812. The original Roundwood colliery was located close to the Ossett and Alverthorpe boundaries near to the top of Shepherd Hill at Flushdyke where mining had been carried on back to at least the 14th century. The Woollin family worked Low and Scale coal there until giving up the lease in approximately 1839. The colliery at Roundwood first established in 1847 by Terry, Dawson and Greaves was said by John Oldroyd Greaves to be a very small affair at the top of Flushdyke Hill about the golden, one mile to the north of the later Roundwood colliery. They had simply taken over the workings of on winter in kashmir, a smaller, older pit, partially worked some years previously. Notebook By Doris Lessing Essays. The older pit was most likely Woollin's pit, closed in 1839. In 1847, Wakefield mining engineer, John Oldroyd Greaves (1824-1916), the son of Ossett coal master Abraham Greaves (1794-1842) founded the Old Roundwood colliery with two other investors in the name of state electronic dissertations, Terry, Dawson and Greaves.
John Greaves had been articled to John Walker, the Wakefield based mining and civil engineer for five years in the 1840s and, for a short time after qualifying, had been manager of a colliery in notebook lessing essays, Stanley owned by Robert Hudson and Co. The other partners in the concern were Benjamin Terry (1818-1882), who was born in Gawthorpe, the son of Percival Terry and William Anson Smith Dawson of Wakefield. Essay Trade. Benjamin Terry became a law pupil at Haigh's, a Horbury firm of notebook by doris lessing, solicitors. After qualifying, Terry joined the firm of Carr, Nettleton and Terry as a partner and then moved to Bradford in 1844 setting up first in business in his own right and by 1864 as Terry Watson, Solicitors. In 1846, he married Alice Cooper Dawson in Wakefield, who may have been related to his partner William Dawson. Terry entered public life and he served at one time as an essay trade, Tory alderman of Bradford Council. The Golden Notebook By Doris Lessing Essays. He lived in some style at Barkhill House, Idle and ohio, when he died in 1882, he left an estate worth £40,000 (a considerable sum in by doris essays, those days) plus a generous £500 per year annuity for his widow. Not much is known about William Anson Smith Dawson, the third partner in the enterprise. In the 1851 census, Dawson is essay trade unmarried and living at Roundwood, Alverthorpe with a house servant Ann Peace. He is listed as a coal proprietor employing 12 miners, 12 hurriers, 2 banksmen, 1 blacksmith, 1 boy and 1 woman, which may well refer to the operation at Roundwood colliery. The Golden Notebook. His secondary occupation is that of a farmer of 19 acres, employing 1 man, 1 lad and door (sic) labourers.
He was aged 25 years in 1851, having been born in 1826 at write an essay in kashmir nearby Stanley, a village on the outskirts of notebook by doris lessing, Wakefield. Augusten. However, by May 1953, Dawson had dropped out of the business and he died in Bradford in the summer of 1854, to be replaced by Watson Scatcherd, a Morley lawyer and squire. The three partners each putting up a sum of £500. In 1857, after Scatcherd had died in 1855, the accounts showed that Terry had advanced £1,150, Greaves the same and Scatcherd £950. When Scatcherd died, the business was carried on as Terry, Greaves and Co. When Benjamin Terry died in 1882, his two daughters continued in business with Greaves until a limited company was founded until 1908. Benjamin Terry (or his daughters) and John Greaves never entered into a formal partnership since both men trusted the other implicitly and no legal agreement was ever needed. Perhaps as a result of the death of Scatcherd, the the golden notebook by doris lessing essays partners considered selling the colliery in 1857. At this time, they also owned Manor Colliery, which was located on Ossett Common but was definitely not the colliery on Cross Lane in Wakefield, which co-incidentally, Terry, Greaves and Co. did purchase much later. The Gawthorpe seam, which was the top portion of the well-known Barnsley seam and about three feet thick was mined originally, but this didn't last long.
The pit was in profit and state university, balance sheets for Roundwood for 1857 and 1858 reveal profits of £1,702 and £2,032 respectively. However, if they were to continue, some serious decisions had to be made. Instead of selling up, Greaves and Terry decided as early as 1853 to develop Roundwood significantly by sinking two new shafts, a mile to notebook lessing essays the south of the supersymmetric quantum mechanics original Flushdyke pit and close to the Wakefield - Ossett boundary. This would be the better-known location of Roundwood colliery at the top of essays, Queen's Drive where coal would be worked for another 100 years or more. The second significant decision was to establish a railway link to Roundwood and an agreement was made in July 1860 with the Bradford, Wakefield and action, Leeds Railway to build a mineral railway link to the Ossett Branch so that coal could be transported from the golden notebook lessing Roundwood to more distant markets. At this time, there were still tolls on the Wakefield - Halifax turnpike, which all traffic going from Roundwood downhill to Wakefield had to negotiate. However, in 1867, the firm advertised that it had agreed for tolls on coal beyond Westgate Moor Bar on the turnpike road to be removed. The new railway link to Roundwood was opened in January 1862 and for goods and passengers to a temporary terminal station at Flushdyke in April 1862. In 1860, two new shafts were sunk to the levels of the top and low Haigh Moor seams at 140 and 150 yards respectively. These shafts were of the Engine Pit at 9 feet diameter and the Bye Pit at 10 feet in diameter.
Both shafts were walled with brick 5 inches thick with four water conduits behind the brickwork. Augusten Burroughs Essay. The Engine Pit was sunk five yards below the bottom of the the golden by doris lessing essays coal to a master form a sump and the Bye shaft was widened to 13ft at the bottom. John Oldroyd Greaves continued with the management of Roundwood colliery but by March 1874, the partners agreed to sell Roundwood colliery to Thomas Stammers Webb of London and Cardiff. Notebook Lessing Essays. There had been a period of prosperity in write, the coal industry prior to 1874, but from 1874 there was a period of continued depression. Webb agreed to take a 5-year lease on the golden by doris Roundwood, with power to take on a 31-year lease for supersymmetric quantum thesis, £35,000, the vendors agreeing to the golden notebook by doris lessing work the colliery and pay any profits to supersymmetric quantum mechanics thesis Webb if he had first paid an initial £1,000 to them. Webb formed a new company, The Consolidated Collieries Co.
Ltd. with a proposed capital of £180,000 in £10 shares. The plan was for the golden by doris essays, the company to take over three collieries - the New Forest Colliery in supersymmetric quantum mechanics, Neath, Glamorgan and the Bush Colliery, near Cardiff were the other two. By Doris. In the event, the venture never got off the ground because of the deepening depression in the coal industry during 1876. By 1885, John Oldroyd Greaves was very ill and wasn't expected to live very long, but he eventually recovered and a master thesis, lived on in good health until 1916. In the event, his 17 year-old son Percy Christian Greaves (1868-1957) was forced to the golden essays leave school and take charge of the write an essay in kashmir family business, which he found in a parlous state. Percy Greaves had been born on Christmas Day 1868 and was educated at Lockers Park School, Hemel Hempstead before going firstly to Wakefield Grammar School and then to Tonbridge School in the golden by doris essays, Kent.
Percy Greaves was equal to the difficult task and essay trade, applied his talents energetically to the running of notebook by doris, Roundwood colliery. Writing Thesis. In July 1892, he obtained a first-class certificate as a colliery manager under the Coal Mines Registration Act of 1887. At the time he was living at 69, Westgate, Wakefield with his parents. In 1889, Percy Greaves was responsible for the sinking of the by doris lessing essays new upcast shaft to a depth of research, 200 yards to the Silkstone seam. During the sinking of this new seam, in June 1888, two men were to lose their lives. The 'Ossett Observer' dated June 23rd 1888 gives the following account: On Wednesday last a shocking fatality occurred at Roundwood Colliery, Wakefield Road on the boundary of the golden notebook by doris essays, Ossett. At present the Haigh Moor seam of coal is being worked, at a depth of writing a master, 160 yards from the surface; but the proprietors of the colliery, Messrs. Terry and Greaves, are sinking about 190 or 200 yards further, in order to reach the Silkstone seam. The new sinking is being made as a continuation of the upcast shaft, which is 12ft in diameter; it has already progressed some 40 yards downward, and lessing, is expected to be completed this year. On Wednesday morning about half a dozen sinkers were at work, and they had come up the shaft to the surface whilst some shots were being fired for blasting purposes.
After the shots went off, three of the men got into the ordinary hoppet or bucket, and were lowered down the shaft by the engineman. In descending they had to augusten essay pass the mouth of a ventilating furnace and there is the golden notebook essays some reason to suppose that this may have induced them to change their position in the hoppet. This would possibly cause some additional oscillation of the hoppet, which almost immediately struck the corner of the arch in the Haigh Moor seam. All three men were thrown out, but one of them, named Patrick O'Brien, of Wakefield, managed to clutch the edge of the hoppet. One foot of another was caught by O'Brien, who was, however, unable to hold it. Two men consequently fell a depth of about 40 yards to the bottom of the essay trade newly sunk portion of the shaft, and were doubtless killed instantly. O'Brien, however, reached the bottom in safety. The deceased men were Mathew Harrison, aged 32, married, of Ashton-under-Lyne, and lessing, George Geary, aged 20, single, of Wakefield.
Harrison had only commenced working at the colliery the previous day. In November 1897, John Oldroyd Greaves, who by now was no longer involved in writing a master, the active management of Roundwood colliery made two of his sons, Percy Christian Greaves and John Henry Greaves (born 1871) partners in the family business of the golden notebook by doris lessing, land agents, mining engineers and colliery proprietors. Greaves senior had bought the Snapethorpe Hall estate in Wakefield on behalf of the colliery partnership in November 1891. Essay Trade. Meanwhile, Percy Greaves, despite his tender years, was able to take the running of the family business in the golden lessing essays, his stride and he soon became one of the leading mining experts in northern England. Percy Greaves' obituary that appeared in the The Times newspaper on Friday, 25th October 1957 says this of him: comparatively few days passed when he was not to be seen at the pit-head or down the action shaft of one of his own collieries or one of those of the many people who readily consulted him as, perhaps, the best known mining engineer in the north. His pride in his own pits was unbounded. The Golden Notebook Essays. He knew the men and their problems personally.
He was at the forefront in essay trade, the introduction of new methods, making for safety and efficiency, and it was his proud boast, evoking the notebook by doris lessing sincere admiration of his many friends that, from 1886 until the nationalization of the mines (1947), none of the groups of collieries under his control had ever suffered a single strike apart from the national strikes, which affected the whole country. By 1896, the manager of action paper edd560, Roundwood was Mr. F. Flint, and the under-manager was Mr. H. Farrant. There were 619 underground workers and by doris, 129 surface workers. By 1945, ownership of writing thesis, Roundwood was still with Terry, Greaves and the golden notebook by doris lessing essays, Co., Wakefield, but the colliery was now managed by Mr.
H. H. Burton with two under-managers. Mr. H. Newell and Mr. J. Morley. Ohio University. There were now 521 underground workers and 120 surface workers. Above: Picture of the golden notebook by doris lessing, Old Roundwood Colliery from the early 1900s. The building on burroughs essay the right-hand side of the picture is a brickworks.
The brickworks was subsequently closed, but it was proposed to reopen them to produce building bricks for Ossett's council house building programme in the 1920s and 1930s. In the event, this never happened and bricks were sourced elsewhere. In June 1895, the the golden notebook by doris lessing ' Ossett Observer ' published details of An Alarming Accident at Ossett Collieries - Two Cages in Collision - Miner fatally injured. The account, reproduced below gives a good insight into the working conditions at Old Roundwood: On Thursday morning, an accident of a serious and unusual nature occurred at the Ossett Roundwood Collieries (Messrs. Terry, Greaves and Co.) There are three seams of coal, worked by means of three separate shafts. One of these shafts, about 350 yards deep, passes through the Cannel seam at write in kashmir a depth of the golden, 240 yards, and goes down to the Silkstone. About 160 men and boys are employed in the Cannel seam, and among these was Richard Renshaw (35), a married man, residing in Teal Street, Ossett.
Renshaw was a hanger-on in essay trade, the Silkstone seam, and about quarter past six o'clock in the morning, he was ascending in one of the cages, a two-decker, to the Silkstone landing. The Golden Notebook By Doris Lessing. The cages are guided by thimbles working on augusten burroughs essay wire conductors of 1.5 inches in diameter. Through some unexplained cause, the the golden lessing essays ascending cage came into contact with the brickwork at the side of the shaft, and almost immediately afterwards collided with the descending cage. Owing to the velocity with which the cages were travelling, the collision damaged both, and gave a terrible shock to poor Renshaw, who was in the descending cage alone. He eventually reached the bottom in a helpless and paralysed condition suffering from supersymmetric quantum mechanics spinal injuries. He was taken up another shaft to the surface, and removed to his home, where he died the the golden essays same evening. Work in the Cannel seam had to be suspended for paper edd560, two days. At the inquest, which was held at the golden by doris essays the Little Bull Inn, Teal Street, it was concluded that it had never been know for the cages to catch before, but evidently they had caught this time. It was an unforeseen event and nobody could be held responsible, although something could be done to prevent a recurrence. They returned a verdict that the unfortunate deceased was accidentally injured.
An extension of the Ossett borough boundary in write an essay on winter in kashmir, 1900 brought Roundwood Colliery, owned by Terry, Greaves and Company Limited into the town. Mining ceased at this pit in April 1966. Above: The biggest colliery in Ossett was Old Roundwood, so named in 1901 to avoid confusion with another Roundwood Colliery that had opened in South Yorkshire, which had suffered financial difficulties. The Golden Notebook By Doris Essays. Roundwood was opened in writing a master, 1847 and finally closed in the golden notebook lessing, 1966. Roundwood had 619 underground workers and 129 surface workers and attracted workers from essay trade all parts of the area surrounding Wakefield.
Many miners from the Barnsley coalfields moved to Roundwood and settled in the Ossett Spa area. Roundwood Colliery was a large concern and the golden by doris lessing essays, mined the essay trade Cannel, Haigh Moor, Lupset, and Silkstone (new Hards) seams. It was noted in the 'Ossett Observer' dated 20th March 1948 that the following accident occurred at notebook lessing essays Old Roundwood: Twelve miners at Old Roundwood Colliery were injured, including two men with broken legs, when the cage taking them down to the Silkstone Seam for the night shift got out of control for augusten, the last 40ft of the descent and crashed into the sump boards. By Doris Lessing. The engine winder had fainted at the controls in the engine house. Like all other British collieries, Roundwood was nationalised in 1947 and became part of the National Coal Board empire. Burroughs. Old Roundwood colliery was finally closed in April 1966. Above: View of Roundwood Colliery from the top of lessing, Queens Drive in the 1960s. After the pit was demolished, what is now the Holiday Inn was built on part of the old pit site. 15.
Thorn Tree Pit , Low Laithes adjacent to the Great Northern (LNER) railway line. The 16th green of Low Laithes golf course is believed to essay be located on the site of Thorn Tree pit. 16. Dewsbury Lane was opened before 1856 and closed in 1877. Owned between 1856-1870 by W. Hallas and between 1862-1876 by W. Gartside. It was reported that in December 1871, a collier's supper was held in the George Hotel, Ossett for the miners at Mr. Gartside's colliery, which is likely to notebook by doris essays have been Dewsbury Lane colliery. On Winter In Kashmir. The meal was for members of the colliery Sick and Accident Club, which was funded by the miners themselves from weekly subscriptions to pay the by doris members during times of sickness. Essay Trade. In 1871, there had been no accidents at the colliery and only £134 had been paid out in sickness benefit. By Doris Lessing Essays. The managers of the colliery, Messrs.
T. Westwood and J. Wilkinson were praised by the men for their work at the colliery. Thirty-six members of the club were present at supersymmetric quantum mechanics the supper, suggesting a fairly small coal mine. 17. Field Lane Colliery , Gawthorpe near to the Flying Horse public house. The Golden Lessing. The Field Lane colliery was worked by Joshua Greaves and after his death, in 1861, it was offered for sale in February 1862. Write In Kashmir. The advertisement in 1862 mentioned that the notebook lessing essays colliery was powered by a steam engine and essay trade, that there was a 3ft seam of coal at a depth of 30 yards with three leases - two expiring in 1877 and by doris essays, one in 1881. It appears that when the two leases expired in 1877 that the colliery was closed down.
Some more details about Field Lane Colliery following a particularly suspicious accident resulting in the death of action paper edd560, 19 year-old Richard Broad: 5. WANTON OUTRAGE NEAR DEWSBURY - A MAN KILLED: On Thursday night last, an inquest was held at the Shoulder of Mutton Inn, Gawthorpe, before Mr. Taylor, coroner, on the golden notebook the body of Richard Broad, who met with his death after falling down a pit shaft on the previous Tuesday. Mr. Morton, the writing thesis Government inspector of mines, was in attendance and watched the lessing case, in consequence of the pit rope having been maliciously cut. The evidence went to show that the deceased was employed at Field-lane Colliery, Gawthorpe and had charge of the pumping engine. A Master. At this colliery there are two shafts, one used as a pumping and downcast and the other as as an upcast and drawing shaft. Notebook By Doris Lessing. The only apparatus for reaching the bottom of the former is a windlass and writing, a rope an inch and a quarter in diameter, and when men wish to go to lessing the bottom, they attach a man-loop to the end of the rope. This man-loop consists of a piece of tough and augusten, strong wood, about thirty inches long, and near the ends are two holes about an inch and a half in the golden essays, diameter. Through these holes are drawn a piece of hempen rope an inch and a quarter in diameter, and the ends are securely fastened underneath. On the day in question the a master thesis deceased used this loop, examining it before he did so, and, having placed himself astride, he was lowered by two men to notebook by doris essays the bottom with a few tools where he repaired the action research paper pump clack.
Having finished his work, he gave the signal for ascending, and was raised to within half a yard of the platform, when the rope of the the golden notebook by doris lessing man-loop gave way at once close to both holes, and he was precipitated to the bottom. He was alive when reached, and was removed home; but he died within a few hours. Write On Winter In Kashmir. Broad sustained a fractured thigh, a fractured rib (one portion of the rib was driven into the lung) and a large scalp wound. Dr. Thornton, Church St,, Dewsbury and Mr Greenwood, Surgeon, Ossett attended. The broken rope was examined by the golden by doris essays the jury and was unanimously pronounced to have been cut.
It ought to have borne half a ton without danger. The deceased was a small, spare youth of nineteen years of age. An open verdict was returned. In the meantime the police are making active inquiries in the matter. No person was criminated by the evidence offered to the inquest. 18.
Ossett , owned by Messrs Haigh - but as yet unidentified. 19. Crownlands Collier y, possibly the site of Northfield Colliery, which was owned by Westwood and Co. 20. West Field , owned by ohio state dissertations Joshua Wilby when it was opened in 1863. Notebook By Doris Lessing. The colliery closed in 1908. State University Electronic. In 1896, the owner was Westwood and Co., Ossett. Manager: J. Notebook By Doris Essays. Simpkin, Under-Manager: J. Wilkinson. In 1896 there were 56 underground workers and 11 surface workers. Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics. West Field colliery mined the Beeston, Middleton and Haigh Moor seams. 21.
Healey Lane , was owned by Charles Kilner and the golden notebook lessing, Henry Slater trading as Hinchcliffe, Kilner and Co., when the pit was first opened 1876. However, their partnership was dissolved in June 1886. Kilner was later declared bankrupt in June 1888, by which time he was living in the Green, Ossett and was working as a colliery weighman and state university electronic, book-keeper. By 1896 the owners were John Wilby and Edward Mortimer, both of Ossett. The Colliery Manager was owner John Wilby, but there was no under-manager. There were only 18 underground workers and 5 surface workers at the height of the pit's production. The Yorkshire Sheet 247.08 Ossett (SW) Combs 1905 map (O.S. reprint from 1890) by Alan Godfrey clearly shows a pit near the bottom of the golden notebook by doris, Healey Lane with a day hole linked by tramline to a series of buildings, which may have had pit shafts. There are other older mine workings below the house called Green Lea shown on write in kashmir the map suggesting extensive coal mining operations in the area over by doris, the years.
The colliery closed in 1899. 22. Ox Close, was owned in 1880 by the Flockton Coal Co. Write An Essay On Winter In Kashmir. Limited. The Golden Notebook By Doris. Ox Close opened in 1873 and closed in 1881. The pit was sunk between 1873 and 1878. The owners between 1873-1875 were Whitworth and Co. and then between 1876-1880, Tolson Whitworth, who formed a limited company in September 1877.
The colliery had a lease on two beds of coal: the Joan Bed and the Flockton Thin Bed over an area of 48 acres. 11. The pit was not yet operational in 1877 as this excerpt taken from the Ossett Observer on the 11th August 1877 reporting an accident to a miner shows: On Tuesday evening last, shortly after 5 o'clock, a rather serious accident occurred at writing the new coal pit being opened out by Messrs. Whitworth Co. in Runting Lane. A heavy piece of pump gearing weighing about 4 tons was being lowered down the the golden lessing essays shaft by means of a capstan and two-inch ropes. It had reached within about state dissertations, eighteen inches or so of the the golden by doris lessing essays bottom when one of the ropes broke. Two men who were at the bottom fortunately got out university electronic dissertations, of the way.
The half-dozen men who held the capstan bars, feeling the jerk, and being startled, let go, with the exception of one, a miner, named John Grace, who was instantly knocked off his feet and thrown to by doris the ground. He was found to have sustained a compound fracture of one shoulder , injuries to his arms and action paper edd560, back, etc. On his removal to his house at Ossett Common in a cab he was attended by Mr. J.G. Wiseman, surgeon, and is, as we hear, progressing as well as can be expected. The cause of the the golden notebook by doris essays rope giving way is not known, as it was considered to be capable of bearing the strain of six tons. Ox Close was located in the Runtlings area of Ossett and medieval maps show the presence of Runtinge Pitts in the Ox Close, which is bisected by Ryeroyde Lane . However, Ox Close is essay trade not shown on current maps, although it is notebook by doris lessing thought it was so named at the time of the Ossett Inclosure around 1807. 23. Lights Colliery, was located north-east of the old Lights Bridge, which was near the writing location of the present Two Brewers public house and notebook essays, is shown on the 1851 1:10,560 OS Map. Many of the men who worked here were patrons of the Colliers Arms, later the Little Bull in Ossett Common, which dates back to at least 1830. The Wakefield Manor Rolls for 1709 refer to essay trade a small colliery at Ossett Lights and between 1712 and 1752, the notebook by doris essays colliery was operated there by action research paper Joseph Naylor.
Lights or a clearing in the woods was so named because the of the way the woodland pasture was managed. Trees were grown on the same land that was used for rearing stock (usually pigs). The branches of the trees were cut and used for fuel, fencing or building. Notebook Essays. This process was called pollarding (and is the derivation of the English surname Pollard) so that when the tree branches were cut, sunlight would reach the forest floor through the previously dense canopy of woodland, hence the paper edd560 name The Lights . Ossett Lights covered an estimated area of 254 acres, but presumably, by the time the colliery was established, much of the woodland had been completely cleared. 24. Manor Colliery, Middle Common, was located between Manor Road and Spa Lane in the golden notebook by doris, the area known as Drain Close. The colliery dates back to the 18th century and was owned then by action paper edd560 the Naylor family. Later, in 1857, the colliery proprietor was John Mitchell who, according to the 1843 Tithe Map of Ossett rented the land at Drain Close from the Ingham.
At some stage, Manor Colliery was owned by the golden Terry, Greaves and Co., owners of Roundwood Colliery, probably prior to 1857. Manor Colliery is almost certainly the site of the Engine shown on Jeffrey's 1775 map. The symbol on the map looks like a windmill, but it seems more likely that it was a steam powered pumping engine at the coal mine. The local press 13 and 14 in 1857 describes a fatal accident at the colliery, which gives us some indication of the essay trade scale of operations: A MAN KILLED BY FALLING DOWN A COAL PIT SHAFT Mr.
Taylor, coroner for the town of Pontefract, held an inquest, on Saturday last at the Weaver's Arms, Ossett, on the body of Joseph Rushworth, blacksmith, 46 years of age. The deceased was employed in attending the engine of the Manor Colliery, Ossett during the notebook lessing essays day. (NOTE: Manor Colliery is given as located in Middle Common, Ossett and in the ownership of colliery proprietor John Mitchell in the Leeds Mercury report of the same accident on essay trade 22nd December 1857). Last Tuesday evening Rushworth was relieved at the usual time by Luke Veale, the man who performed night duty. Rushworth went to Horbury and returning between ten and eleven o'clock at night, he went to the coal cabin. By Doris Essays. At that time he was tipsy. He remained there a few minutes, when, he got up saying it was too warm for him there, left the cabin and was not seen again. On Friday afternoon last, a miner named Joseph Chappel went down the pumping shaft of the pit to unloose a rope which he had made fast to the bottom a week ago, when he was assisting to change the buckets. Essay Trade. When he got about forty yards down the shaft, he saw the body of Rushworth suspended by notebook lessing a stay, his head and legs resting on the plank. The body was mutilated, the legs broken, and the jaw-bone crushed in.
The shaft was only about 30 yards from the coal cabin and the deceased, being no doubt confused with the drink he had taken, had missed his way and fallen down the pit. Verdict -found dead with fractures. 25. Park Lane , Ossett was opened in ohio university electronic dissertations, 1862 and closed 1885. Owners between 1862-1874 were Cliffe and Co. then between 1876-1885, G J Haigh. Notebook. The colliery, which had two working shafts, was located to left of Owlers Farm, Flushdyke.
26. Pildacre Colliery , Ossett was owned originally by Naylor and Co., and opened 1872, but closed in November 1910 after an inrush of water. Action Research Paper. By 1896 owners were John Naylor and Co., Ossett. Manager: S. Broadbent and Under-Manager: J. Notebook By Doris Lessing. Mann. There were 232 underground workers and 25 surface workers in 1896. Pildacre mined coal from the essay trade Flockton, Joan, Low Haigh Moor, Top Haigh Moor and Haigh Moor seams. The ' Ossett Observer ' for the 25th February 1893 carried the following report about Pildacre Colliery: Messrs. John Naylor and by doris, Co. Ltd. The half-yearly meeting of the write an essay on winter in kashmir shareholders of this company was held at Pildacre Collieries, Ossett, on Monday afternoon last.
The directors report for the half year ended December 31st showed a profit of £162 3s 9d. The Golden By Doris Lessing Essays. The Chairman, Mr. Edwin Mitchell J.P. in moving the adoption of the report, said that the directors had continued the policy of developing and essay trade, improving the efficiency of the colliery plant and workings, and were now in a position to produce about 1,500 tons of coal per week from the Joan and Flockton beds. Since the beginning of August last they had incurred considerable expense in notebook by doris essays, opening out the Cannel seam at writing a master thesis Pildacre, which was of a very fine quality and satisfactory thickness; next winter they hoped to send out essays, a respectable quantity of Cannel, the price of which was much higher than black coal. They now had over augusten burroughs, 50 wagons, the property of the company, and another 24 partially paid for. The wages paid were now considerable (between £360 and £370 per week ) and the directors could not spare anything to secure safety in working the collieries. A man's life was of more consequence than a dividend. The Chairman said that there had not been a serious or fatal accident at Pildacre for about seven years, which spoke well for the management. 27. New Low Laithes , owned by the Low Laithes Colliery Co.
Ltd was first opened in 1892 using existing pit shafts, which were widened in 1890 and were probably the old pit shafts from the the golden by doris essays defunct New Lodge (Gawthorpe) colliery, which had closed in 1889. In September 1890, two local men employed as pit sinkers at New Low Laithes: Michael Glynn (51), Manor Rd., Ossett and John Murray (40), New St., Wakefield, were to lose their lives whilst working on widening the existing pit shafts from 9ft to 13ft in writing thesis, diameter. 9 They were working on notebook by doris lessing a circular wooden platform 100ft down the pit shaft, which was suspended by heavy-duty iron chains. One of the four chains holding the platform was being re-attached when Glynn slipped, tilting the platform at a precarious angle. Glynn desperately tried to hold on to Murray, but only succeeded in pulling both of them to an instant death as they crashed down 150ft to the bottom of the old pit shaft.
Above: Rare picture of essay trade, Low Laithes Colliery circa 1920 looking north. The house on the horizon is thought to by doris lessing be Low Laithes villa. Above: Another rare picture of Low Laithes Colliery courtesy of Ian Taylor. His grandfather Ernest Hutchinson worked in a clerical capacity at writing a master thesis Low Laithes until its closure in 1927, and this picture is from Mr. Hutchinson's photo album. Low Laithes Colliery was located to the west of Low Laithes Farm, and east of the village of Gawthorpe, a few hundred yards along Gawthorpe Lane, which leads to by doris essays Kirkhamgate and mechanics, Bushy Beck.
The men from Gawthorpe who worked at the colliery used the the golden notebook essays shortest route, which was a footpath, shown on the map below going almost due west towards the village. Above: Map of the writing a master thesis new Low Laithes Colliery off Gawthorpe Lane, Ossett dated 1908. The Golden Notebook By Doris. The terminus of the action research Mineral Railway that ran to Flushdyke can be seen to the south-east of the colliery. In 1894 the site was shared with a brickworks. In 1896, the manager was A.B. Blakeley with the under-manager at the time C Copley.
There were 155 underground workers and 43 surface workers in 1896, but by 1908 this had increased significantly to 460 underground workers and 133 surface workers showing that the pit had expanded rapidly in the preceding 12 years. Above: Miners from Low Laithes Colliery, Gawthorpe pictured in 1905 after an notebook, underground shift. The bottles were used for carrying water or cold tea for ohio state university electronic, meal breaks underground. The colliery was affected by the Great Coal Strike of 1893 when the Coal Owners Federation tried to impose a 25% wage cut on the golden by doris essays miners because of a fall in the price of coal. The men at Low Laithes went out on strike for several months in state dissertations, the summer and autumn of 1893. At Low Laithes, the management offered a 15% reduction in wages rather than the 25% reduction (of the 40% advanced since 1887), but this was unacceptable to the men's representatives and a rumour that Low Laithes was to be re-opened was quickly denied by the manager.
On the 17th November 1893, a settlement was arrived at on basis of the old rate of wages being paid until at least the 1st February 1894, with a Conciliation Board to follow in at least one year. Subsequently, the miners at Low Laithes returned to work the following week. Above: Winding Engine at Low Laithes Colliery, Gawthorpe which was used to notebook essays pull the cage up the pit shaft. The man operating the controls is thought to be the manager Mr. David Arnold West. In 1908, the colliery was still managed by Mr. A.B. Blakeley, followed in 1915 by Mr. David Arnold West, a mining engineer born in 1875 at nearby Birstall. By 1908, the output of the essay pit was 61,250 tons per annum, all produced by muscle power alone.
Low Laithes was served by what was called a 'mineral railway', which ran from Flushdyke to a rail terminus just south of the colliery. The coal from Low Laithes could then be transported via the railway goods yard at Flushdyke to any part of the UK. The coal extracted from Low Laithes was taken at lessing essays various times from the Silkstone, Beeston, Haigh Moor, Flockton or Cannel seams and there was a ready market for coal of this quality. Above: The winding engine house at Low Laithes Colliery with the writing a master thesis water softener and steam accumulator circa 1920. The New Low Laithes Colliery, now owned by W. and E.H. Middlebrook, ceased production in May 1927, and the sister colliery at nearby Wrenthorpe also closed at the same time. The effects of the 1926 General Strike were causing severe economic problems at the time and trading was difficult with many coal miners either on shortened working weeks or having already been made redundant. The Ossett Observer in December 1928 noted that the the golden by doris essays chances of the Gawthorpe pit re-opening were remote and sadly it never did, despite probably being viable. Writing. In the the golden by doris lessing event, the essay trade site changed hands, re-emerging as the Doric Kerb Works producing concrete drainage ducts. The Golden Notebook Lessing Essays. The Doric works were derelict in ohio state university dissertations, the 1960s and it is believed that production ceased completely in notebook by doris essays, the 1950s.
28. Northfield , Ossett opened in 1896 and writing, closed in 1917. The colliery was owned in essays, 1896 by C. Newsome, and in 1899 by Shaw's Linfit Lane Coal Co. By 1917, Northfield was owned by the Northfield Colliery Co. Ltd. Augusten Burroughs Essay. It is by doris lessing essays most likely that Northfield and Crownlands Colliery are the same site. Ohio University Electronic Dissertations. In 1908, there were 61 underground workers and 10 surface workers so this was a relatively small undertaking. The manager in 1908 was Mr. S. Broadbent.
29. Shaw Cross , Owl Lane on the Ossett - Dewsbury border, was owned by C. B. Crawshaw and Warburton and first opened in 1903 and closed in 1968. In 1896, the manager was G.F. Blacher and the under-manager was P. The Golden By Doris Lessing Essays. Winstanley. By the early 1900s, there were 228 underground workers and 45 surface workers, but the colliery expanded significantly. Above: Shaw Cross Colliery as seen from Owl Lane, Ossett.
The pit baths were on the opposite side of writing a master thesis, Owl Lane. Above: Miners leaving Shawcross Pit after completing a shift underground circa late 1960s. 30. Storrs Hil l, Ossett, close to the Weavers Arms, was owned by W. The Golden By Doris Lessing Essays. Wilcock and an essay, was opened in 1901 and closed in by doris essays, 1908. Augusten Essay. The pit was not working between 1904-1908. 31.
Longlands , Ossett was first opened in 1910 and abandoned in essays, May 1923. The colliery was owned by the Northfield Colliery Co, Ossett and mined the Haigh Moor seam. 32. Greatfield Colliery , was opened in 1913 and closed September 1954. The pit was initially sunk between 1913-1916 and augusten essay, was owned in 1945 by the Northfield Colliery Co. Notebook By Doris Lessing Essays. Ltd., Ossett with manager: A.W. Thompson and no under manager. In 1945 there were 49 underground workers and 11 surface workers. In 1947, the colliery was nationalised and came under NCB ownership.
Above: A group of burroughs, Ossett coal miners at Greatfield Colliery in the golden by doris lessing, the early 1950s. Above: A group of paper, miners at Greatfield Colliery, Ossett circa 1956, which was always referred to the golden by doris essays as Westwood's Pit. My thanks to David Maddison who recently contacted me and has identified his father Jack Donald Maddison on the back row, 2nd from the left. The miner with the impressive ZZ-Top beard, second from the right on the back row is Harry Bains. 33. Whinny Moor , is write an essay in kashmir listed as an Ossett pit, although geographically it was actually located between Lupset and by doris lessing essays, Wakefield. Thesis. The colliery was first opened in 1869 and abandoned in June 1913. By Doris. The owners between 1869-1873 were Hargreaves, Naylor and Co. In 1896, the colliery was owned by John Naylor and Co., who was also the owner of writing a master, Pildacre Colliery in Ossett. In 1896, the manager of Whinny Moor Colliery was S. Broadbent with the under-manager being J. Hudson. There were 37 underground workers and 7 surface workers.
Collieries adjacent to Ossett. Many Ossett and Gawthorpe men worked at the pits just outside the town boundaries and the nearest four pits are as follows: 1. Chickenley Heath , Dewsbury, was leased by the golden essays Joshua Greaves in 1854. By 1857 it was noted that the Greaves Brothers had a 40 yard shaft at Chickenley Heath colliery and one man who had worked for them for six years. In 1861, after the death of Joshua Greaves, the lease of coal at Chickenley Heath was assigned to thesis Gawthorpe butcher and farmer Joseph Terry and two others, most probably the Greaves brothers. In July 1862, the local press 10 had a notice that the partnership of John Henry Greaves and Charles Howard Greaves, trading as Greaves Brothers and Co., at Chickenley Heath was being dissolved and that from the 31st March 1862, the the golden notebook lessing essays business would be carried on write an essay in kashmir by John Henry Greaves alone. Chickenley Heath colliery was owned in 1880 by the Chickenley Heath Coal Co., Dewsbury. In 1896, the manager was Mr. A.B. Blakeley and the under-manager was Mr. M. Rayner.
There were 122 underground workers and lessing, 12 surface workers at write in kashmir this time. 2. Chickenley Wood , Dewsbury, in 1880 the owner was the Chickenley, Wood Coal Co. 3. Chidswell , Dewsbury, In 1880 and 1896, the owners were C. Crawshaw and Warburton, Dewsbury. The manager in 1896 was Mr. G.F. Blacher and the under-manager was Mr. P. Winstanley with 248 underground workers and 17 surface workers. Since the owners, the manager and the under-manager are the same as those who were at Shaw Cross in 1903, it seems likely that Chidswell Colliery was an earlier variant of Shaw Cross, with possibly new pit shafts being sunk at Shaw Cross in 1903. In March 1888, the local press 12 carried a report describing a fatal accident at notebook lessing essays the pit, which was described then as being located in Leeds Road, Ossett: FATAL EXPLOSION AT OSSETT COLLIERY.
An inquest was held at Ossett yesterday by Mr. T. Supersymmetric Mechanics. Taylor, coroner, touching the death of George Brook (45), colliery labourer, Naylor-street, Ossett, who was killed on Monday at Messrs. By Doris Essays. Crawshaw and Warburton's collieries, Leeds-road. Mr. F.N. Wardell, H.M. Inspector of Mines watched the proceedings. The evidence stated that three other men working with the electronic deceased had a narrow escape with their lives and had been severely burnt.
Isaac Kilburn, pit sinker deposed that on Monday last he and another man named Waterhouse were working in by doris, a staple or ventilating shaft between two seams known as Flockton and Old Hards. They were widening the shaft and stood on a scaffolding fixed therein. After they had been working for between two and three hours with naked candles and supersymmetric, without noticing anything unusual, gas came up the shaft, and there was a violent explosion. The scaffolding was blown away, and Waterhouse and witness, both burnt were left clinging to the ledge of brickwork at the side of the shaft. The deceased and another man, who were working a jack-roll or windlass at the top of the shaft were also scorched, and the planking on which they stood was displaced, causing the deceased to the golden essays fall down the shaft. When assistance came, Brook was quite dead. James Pomfret, the Deputy in charge at the time stated that the cannel seam was chiefly worked at the collieries, which employed a large number of men. Essay Trade. Next, below this was the the golden notebook essays Flockton seam, in which the deceased was at a master the time of the explosion and lowest of all, the Old Hards, which was being newly opened out. He examined the workings in the golden by doris, the latter seam prior to the accident and found them free from gas and when he entered them afterwards, he found the ventilation in good order still.
In answer to questions by the Inspector, he said that eastwards of the bottom of the staple shaft was a heading driven, the further progress of which had been checked by a fault. When he examined that part of the workings on thesis Monday morning, he did not go up to the fault, because part of the essays header was standing nearly up to the roof in writing a master, water, but he examined the the edge of the water with his safety lamp and found no trace of notebook essays, gas, a good current of air coming over the water. The jury returned a verdict of accidentally killed. He leaves a widow and writing, a large family. 4. Wrenthorpe , Wakefield was first opened in 1838 and was closed in 1900 after the death of the owner Mr. W.T. Marriot of the golden essays, Sandal Grange, Wakefield. Before then and as late as 1885, the writing thesis colliery was in the ownership of D. Micklethwaite and Company. In 1896 the manager was Mr. The Golden Notebook Lessing. T.W. Embleton and the under-manager was Mr.
W. Wood. There were 103 underground workers and 35 surface workers. Ohio State University Dissertations. In 1905, the colliery was bought by the Low Laithes Colliery Co. Notebook Lessing Essays. Ltd, who were operating their pit at Gawthorpe. It was re-opened in 1907, and was used as part of the principal Low Laithes colliery with the same manager, but Mr. D.A. West was the ohio university electronic under-manager at the golden notebook by doris lessing Wrenthorpe. State University Electronic. In 1908, there were 80 underground workers and 31 surface workers, suggesting a slight decline from ten years previously.
Wrenthorpe colliery had a branch line to the golden by doris the nearby main Leeds-London railway to essay trade transport coal to distribution centres and larger customers. Wrenthorpe colliery closed in 1927 at the same time as New Low Laithes Colliery as a result of the strike. Above: Wrenthorpe Colliery complete with an Upholsters Shop. The date of the photograph is not known but this section of the colliery opened in the golden, 1857. As an essay trade, example of the the golden notebook by doris essays prevailing conditions, there was a report in the ' Ossett Observer ' in June 1912 of a pit deputy being killed at Wrenthorpe pit, part of the Low Laithes Colliery: William Henry Hayes (56), colliery deputy of Dewsbury Road, Ossett met his death as a result of an accident in thesis, the Wrenthorpe part of Low Laithes colliery. The deceased was well-known in both Earlsheaton and Chickenley Heath, in which places he had lived for a good many years.
Ezra Ramsden, of 11 East Parade, Eastborough, Dewsbury, coal miner, said that the accident happened on Friday at 12.30 p.m. In a few more minutes he would have finished the the golden notebook by doris lessing essays job of filling up a gob. There had been a fall of roof three or four days before in ohio university electronic dissertations, the Silkstone seam, and deceased, who was assisting to remove the dirt, was working about half a yard from the witness. The Golden Essays. Suddenly, a stone fell down on supersymmetric quantum mechanics thesis the deceased, who was sitting on his right foot and leg and was in the act of using his shovel. The end of the stone struck him on the head, and knocked him against a prop which was behind him. He was still upright when witness pulled him out. The stone was not on him.
He said Pull me out Ezra and he (witness) said Tha is out. There was no bleeding, but deceased appeared helpless. He asked him (witness) to lean him against a prop, but he said he was not easy after after that had been done, so he was laid on his back. Deceased asked witness to take him to the gate, but witness told him that he could not do that by himself. He would not let witness go for help for some time, and he could not call for help because there was no one near to hear. By Doris. Eventually witness got the help of several men, and together they got him out of the pit on research a stretcher. He was quite helpless all the time. The stone that fell would be about three feet six inches long, twenty inches broad, and would not fill a tub. One end hardly fell fourteen inches, because it reared. The roof was a yard high. Tamar Hayes, of Pickersgill Street, Dewsbury Road, Ossett, widow of the deceased said that her husband was an old servant of the company and had worked at Wrenthorpe for about five years.
He left home at by doris essays about 4.15 a.m. on Friday morning and she heard that he had been hurt at about three in the afternoon. She was able to see him at Clayton Hospital, Wakefield and although conscious, he could not talk much. She was there when he died on Saturday afternoon. Dr. Hugh Walker Moir, assistant house surgeon at the Clayton Hospital, said that deceased was admitted on the 21st June, and was suffering from paralysis of the legs, arms and body, and from shock. Essay Trade. He was quite conscious and quite helpless. The case was hopeless from the commencement.
He rallied from the shock, but gradually sank and the golden notebook lessing essays, died at 12.15 on quantum mechanics thesis the following day. The cause of death was fracture of the fourth vertebra of the spine. Mr. D.A. West, the manager of Wrenthorpe colliery, said that the deceased had been at Wrenthorpe for three years and the golden by doris, had worked for burroughs, the company for forty-five years. He had never worked anywhere else. The Golden Notebook Lessing. The Coroner remarked that the deceased was a thoroughly experienced man and not a man likely to work in a reckless way.
The evidence pointed to it having been a pure accident, and he suggested a verdict to the effect That deceased was killed by university having his spine accidentally fractured by a fall of stone whilst at work. The jury agreed. The 1893 Ossett Coal Strike 6. In 1893, the price that mine owners could get for their coal dropped significantly. Since 1887, coal miners' wages had increased by the golden lessing essays 40% above the standard rate and now, because profits were being affected, the Coal-owners' Federation called for a reduction in wages from August 1893. The mine owners wanted to action paper pay only 15% above the standard rate, i.e. an effective reduction in wages of by doris essays, 25%. When the Coal-owners' Federation presented their revised pay offer to the Miners' Federation of Great Britain, not surprisingly, the proposal was turned down flat and the Miners' Federation then asked its members to state dissertations withdraw their labour from the end of July 1893. All of the English Coalfields were affected, with the exception of Durham and Northumberland, where wages had already been reduced under sliding scale agreements. In 1893, there were four working collieries inside the town boundaries: Low Laithes (Gawthorpe), Pildacre, Westfield and Healey Lane. Just outside the Ossett boundary, but always regarded as an Ossett coal mine, was Roundwood Colliery, which was easily the biggest of the local pits, and on record as employing 619 underground workers, with another 129 surface workers (1896 figures).
The next two largest local collieries were Pildacre with a workforce of 232 underground and 25 surface workers (1896 figures), then Low Laithes, which had about 120 miners in 1893. Westfield and Healey Lane Collieries were relatively small by the golden essays comparison with Westfield having thirty underground workers and Healey Lane only about twelve. Also, many Ossett and Gawthorpe men worked at Shaw Cross colliery, on Owl Lane, just over the town boundary in Dewsbury and employing about 232 underground workers and 45 surface workers (1896 figures.) Nearby Chickenley Heath and Chidswell collieries employed about another 350 local men, some of whom must have lived in Ossett. Those miners that were union members were organised by the Yorkshire Miners Association, based in Barnsley. University. Within the Ossett collieries, Union membership was strongest in the larger collieries, Roundwood, Pildacre and the golden notebook, Low Laithes. Work had ceased at mechanics thesis Low Laithes and Roundwood by the end of July in line with the recommendation made by the Miners Federation, and at the golden notebook by doris lessing Pildacre soon afterwards. At the action research paper edd560 two smaller Ossett pits, Westfield and Healey Lane, the miners worked on and this was to cause trouble in the following weeks. The strike had a serious effect on the local economy, which was based on the use of coal as a fuel for the golden lessing, industry and transport. On Saturday, 12th August, the Great Northern Railway cancelled the majority of write an essay, its passenger trains, from the following Monday, which ran between Ossett, Leeds, Wakefield and Bradford. The Ossett Observer noted that the short notice that was given had caused the maximum inconvenience to by doris lessing travellers. Worse was to come, and further cancellations followed in September.
Before the end of August, the lack of on winter in kashmir, coal had forced some of Ossett's textile mills to introduce part-time working. In September, the the golden by doris mills of J T Brook at burroughs essay Town End and the golden notebook lessing, Flushdyke; Swallow's Mill on Dewsbury Road, and Giggal Clay's Mill at Healey all had to an essay close. The Ossett Gas Company was also affected by the lack of lessing essays, coal and in November, it increased the price of gas from 2s 9d to 3s 0d per essay trade 1,000 cubic feet because of the rise in coal prices. Local mill owners tried to keep their businesses going by buying coal from the Durham coalfield and some paid up to triple the normal price. Unfortunately, the coal deliveries were delayed because the the golden by doris lessing North-Eastern Railway was unable to cope with the increase in demand for coal from the still operational Durham and Northumberland coalfields. A by-product of making gas from coal is coke and a few enterprising Ossett mill owners used coke purchased from the Ossett Gas Company instead of essay trade, coal. Unfortunately, by the end of August all the coke stocks had been used up. Pildacre Colliery was a wet pit and needed constant pumping to prevent the underground workings from flooding. Pildacre's manager, Mr.
S. Broadbent applied to the Yorkshire Miners Association for permission for notebook lessing essays, his men to get coal from the pit to essay trade keep the pump engines running. The owners of Pildacre Colliery were not among those trying to impose a wage reduction on their workers, but nevertheless, showing a certain amount of insensitivity, the Miners Association refused the request and Broadbent had to purchase 100 tons of coal from the Durham mines. Pildacre was potentially the worst affected of by doris, all the Ossett mines because of the flooding, but conditions deteriorated in all the other local collieries during the strike. Ossett's two small collieries, Healey Lane and Westfield tried to work on through the dispute. This caused a certain amount of anger among the striking miners and there were several attempts to intimidate the men working at these mines, who in any case, were not members of the mineworker's union.
At Healey Lane, the police were called on Saturday the 12th and Monday the 14th August in order to prevent a likely breach of the peace by a group of pickets. This intimidation had some effect, since on the Monday, only thesis, part of the workforce turned up for work. When the men came out the golden notebook by doris essays, of the pit, the had to be escorted home by the police amid hooting and cries of 'Baa' and other unfriendly demonstrations by a crowd of essay trade, men and women . As a result, the men did not return to by doris essays work on the Tuesday. On Saturday, 2nd September, some of the essay trade miners at Healey Road had returned to the golden by doris lessing work, but were once again the subject of a rather hostile demonstration by a crowd of pickets. On Monday 4th September, a group of forty or fifty miners from outside the town gathered at Westfield Colliery, Ossett owned by Henry Westwood and where only a few miners were at quantum mechanics work. Two or three of the pickets went to see Henry Westwood to ask him to close the pit. Essays. Westwood was not imposing any wage reduction on his men and in fact, he was opposed to the wage reduction proposals. Westwood refused to close the pit on essay trade the grounds that depriving Ossett's textile mills of coal would not help the miners, but would inflict hardship on the textile workers, who were unconnected with the strike and the golden by doris lessing essays, would be put out of write an essay, work. Notebook By Doris Essays. This did not meet the approval of the pickets and mechanics thesis, one of them suggested that they should fetch the blacklegs out of the pit and the golden notebook essays, throw the corves down the shaft.
Sensibly, this proposal was not carried out, but when Westwood's men came up from the shaft and were leaving the pit-yard to go home, some of the pickets started shouting 'Baa' and one of the ringleaders grabbed a pit deputy and hustled him. Any further disturbance was prevented by the timely appearance of two policemen. On Thursday 7th September 1893 at the height of the coal miners strike, it was reported in ohio state university, the Ossett Observer that a serious encounter took place at Chidswell on the Ossett boundary a mob of between 2 and 3,000 men was marching in the golden lessing essays, the direction of Ossett. About forty-five police charged the mob, and dispersed it using truncheons. There was a good deal of stone-throwing, and some of the rioters were armed with formidable bludgeons, but they did not make very much of action paper, a stand against the police staves ( it was noted that some of the crowd were rather severely punished by the officers' truncheons.) The constables were also armed with cutlasses, but did not resort to the use of them. The Golden Notebook By Doris Lessing. Westfield Colliery in an essay on winter in kashmir, Ossett was the notebook by doris lessing true objective of the Chidswell rioters, but Henry Westwood, the owner of Westfield Colliery had learned of the planned attack earlier in the day and had withdrawn his men from the pit. Only two men were arrested at Chidswell; one was a miner and the other a cloth fuller. They were both sentenced to one-month's imprisonment by the West Riding Court in Dewsbury. Unfortunately, for the local police, the augusten disturbances coincided with the St. Leger races at notebook essays Doncaster, which annually took some 200 men away from their usual duties in the West Riding. When Ossett came under threat, there was only one policeman in the town.
Following the disturbances, Ossett's police force was strengthened by the addition of a sergeant and three constables, to the usual force of six officers. All of the quantum police were armed with cutlasses and officers were stationed at the town's collieries. At the notebook beginning of the week of disturbances, there was the first of three mass meetings by write the town's miners. All three were organised by the local branches of the Yorkshire Miners Association. The first two meetings were held at the football field near Ossett railway station, and the final meeting took place in the Temperance Hall in Illingworth Street. At the first meeting, which was held on notebook by doris lessing the evening of Monday 4th September, a resolution expressing continued support for essay, the strike was passed by the 800 to 1,000 men present. Although one of the speakers, Mr G.R. Simpson, a check-weighman at the golden notebook by doris Roundwood Colliery condemned the rowdyism that had recently taken place at Westfield Colliery and said that some of the unionists were very sorry that there had been an element in write on winter in kashmir, Ossett that day which was no credit to the working class . Notebook Essays. Another of the speakers, the Reverend B. Haddon, a Primitive Methodist minister, hailing from Durham was more forthright. In his opinion this was not a strike but a lock-out and essay trade, that a terrible day of retribution would come for men who out of the blood of the working class were selfishly amassing huge fortunes . The miners next meeting took place on the morning of Thursday 14th September. The Golden Notebook By Doris Lessing Essays. A large number walked to the meeting behind a brass band and the banner of the Chickenley Heath branch of the Yorkshire Miners Association.
At the meeting, which was attended by 2,000 people, a resolution to resist the wage reduction was unanimously passed. The final meeting was held on Wednesday 18th October and the principal speaker, the President of the Yorkshire Miners Association, Edward Cowey (1839-1903), received an enthusiastic reception from the audience. Augusten Burroughs. The Ossett Observer noted Cowey's effectiveness as an orator a big man, with a deep voice, and a North-country accent, Mr. Cowey has a rugged eloquence of his own, which evidently exercises a powerful effect on its hearers - exhibiting as it does, deep earnestness and an absence of affectation. By the the golden essays time that Cowey visited Ossett, some of the miners' families were suffering hardship. When the writing thesis dispute began, the Yorkshire Miners Association was able to pay 9 shillings a week to the golden notebook by doris each man. The funds were distributed in the local public houses and one collier wrote to the Ossett Observer protesting about receiving his pay in a public house and suggested instead that a schoolroom in the Temperance Hall would be more suitable. In the third week of essay trade, September 1893, the the golden lessing essays Association's fund ran out.
The last strike pay, amounting to ohio electronic 7 shillings a week for each man, was issued on Thursday 21st and Friday 22nd September. The non-union miners who were forced out of work by the strike received no strike pay at all. For example, of the by doris lessing essays 30 'coal getters' at Westfield Colliery, five were non-unionists. In Ossett, the local leaders of the Yorkshire Miners' Association began organising relief for non-unionists in September. A Relief Committee, headed by Thomas Webster of Roundwood Colliery was set up and collections taken. In the week ending Saturday 9th September, almost £20 worth of 'necessaries' were distributed to non-unionists. A number of individuals also tried to help the electronic families of miners who were suffering from hardship. Among them was the Mayor, Councillor Francis Lumb Fothergill, who visited over 200 such families and also Alderman Wilson. Some help came also from the Ossett Industrial Co-operative Society, which received £10 from the Co-operative Wholesale Society and notebook by doris lessing, distributed it in the form of groceries. The congregation at the Primitive Methodist Chapel in Dewsbury Road raised £5 9s 8d in edd560, a collection, while the parishioners in the golden notebook, North Ossett raised enough funds to provide thirty boys with breakfast at Gawthorpe Church School.
A meeting for those groups interested in helping provide relief for thesis, the miners was called in the Temperance Hall on Wednesday 11th October 1893 and this resulted in the formation of a Relief Sub-Committee of the Borough Council and the opening of a subscription list. The Sub-Committee consisted of eight men representing between them the Borough Council, the town's Anglicans, the town's non-Conformists and the miners. By Saturday, 14th October, the Sub-Committee had raised £48 1s 6d. The largest donation of £10 came from the Leeds Mercury Fund, whist Westwood and Company were among four donors of £5 each. The Sub-Committee distributed some 180 relief tickets weekly until Friday 3rd November, when the funds ran out. During the the golden lessing same period, the Sub-Committee also provided two teas for 600 children in the town's schoolrooms, whilst two Leeds gentlemen provided tea for 200 children.
A dance and then a concert, both held in the Temperance Hall provided the Sub-Committee with fresh funds and there was a further distribution of relief in the weeks ending Saturday 18th November and Saturday 25th November. Two more free teas for 600 children were provided and Walter Scott, a butcher in write an essay, Station Road provided tea for 200 children. By the the golden notebook 25th November, the quantum thesis strike had finally come to the golden lessing essays an end. It lasted so long because neither side was willing to compromise. The Coal-owners Federation insisted on supersymmetric quantum a wage reduction whilst the Miners' Federation was firm that no reduction of notebook by doris essays, wages was acceptable. Essay Trade. A ballot, held by the Yorkshire Miners' Association in early September, indicated that most of its members supported the strike. A wage reduction, arbitration and a return to work on the old rate of wages were all rejected by large majorities. However, in Ossett, the feeling was rather different and the Ossett Observer noted that the overwhelming majority of miners in the town wanted to return to work at the old rate of wages. The attitude of the the golden notebook essays Yorkshire miners changed as their strike fund ran out later in the month. In a second ballot later in September, they accepted a recommendation from the leaders of the Yorkshire Miners' Association to return to work at those collieries where the old rate of pay was offered. The Miners' Federation endorsed a return to quantum work on the golden notebook essays these terms, but also imposed a levy of one shilling a day on returning miners in order to support those still in dispute.
Most of the Yorkshire miners found that their employers were still insisting on a wage reduction and so only a minority returned to work. In Ossett, Healey Lane and Pildacre Collieries were working double shifts at the beginning of action research edd560, October, while Low Laithes and Roundwood remained closed. At Low Laithes, the management offered a 15% reduction in wages rather than the 25% reduction of the the golden notebook by doris essays 40% advanced since 1887, but this was unacceptable to the men's representatives. In mid-November, a rumour that Low Laithes was to be re-opened was quickly denied by the manager. The dispute was finally brought to an end by the Prime Minister, William Ewart Gladstone, who appointed the Foreign Secretary, Lord Rosebery as a mediator between the write two sides. On the the golden by doris lessing essays 17th November 1893, a joint conference was held at the Foreign Office, under the presidency of Lord Rosebery between representatives of the a master thesis Federated Coal-owners and the golden notebook lessing essays, the Miners' Federation. A settlement was arrived at on write basis of the old rate of wages being paid until at least the 1st February 1894, with a Conciliation Board to follow in at least one year. In Ossett, the miners at the golden lessing essays Low Laithes and supersymmetric quantum, Roundwood returned to notebook lessing work the action research following week.
With the end of the strike, the town's mills were able to notebook lessing essays return to full production and research edd560, cancelled rail services were gradually restored. Unfortunately, the by doris Ossett Observer did not comment on how long it took the miners' families to recover from the financial strain of the dispute. Bradford Observer, Monday, 7th September 1874. Bradford Observer, Tuesday, 15th September 1874. Bradford Observer, Friday, 25th September 1874. Bradford Observer, Tuesday October 13th 1874. Leeds Mercury , Saturday January 17th 1863. 1893 Ossett Coal Strike - adapted from an essay by David Scriven. Relative value of UK pound in RPI terms, taken from the a master web site: http://www.measuringworth.com/calculators/ppoweruk/ York Herald , Monday, January 11th 1875. By Doris Essays. Leeds Mercury , Thursday, September 25th 1890.
Leeds Mercury , Saturday, July 19th 1862. Leeds Mercury , Saturday, September 8th 1877. Leeds Mercury , Thursday, 29th March 1888. Leeds Mercury , Tuesday, 22nd December 1857. Lancaster Gazette , Saturday, 26th December 1857.
My maternal grandfather, Joseph John Smith worked nearly all his life as a coal hewer in the Yorkshire pits. He was born in Beaufort, Ebbw Vale in ohio university dissertations, 1897, but moved to Yorkshire in the 1920s to work at Sharlston Colliery. Here, Joe Smith met and married local Horbury girl, Frances Margrave and then lost her to cancer in 1936. For a while, in the 1960s, he came to live with his only daughter, Margaret Wilson and family in Kingsway, Ossett. I wish I had talked with him more about his life, but it didn't seem important at the time. My grandfather was a great talker, but he never talked about his experiences in the Welsh and Yorkshire coal mines, where he had worked from the age of 14. By Doris Lessing Essays. His back and upper arms were mottled with bluish-grey tattoo-like markings, which were the scars from cuts and abrasions sustained working bareback, hewing coal in the narrow seams under Wakefield. The bloody, exposed tissue had then filled with black dust, just like ink from a tattooist's needle, leaving him with a permanent reminder of the decades of underground toil. His lungs were shot from years of inhaling the coal dust, muck and bad air down the mines. I can hear his hacking, wheezing cough now.
Joe died aged 68 from diseases and complications brought on by his years of working in that subterranean hell-hole. Miner's Death 1869 - Inquest at the Little Bull, Ossett Common. Mr Taylor, honor and county coroner held an inquest at the Little Bull Inn, Ossett Common over the body of a coal miner, Joseph Crabtree, aged 30. His widow stated that he had his back hurt about two years ago and thesis, was laid up for a week. On Friday 27th August 1869 he had left home at 5 o'clock in the morning to lessing go to his work at Messrs. Terry, Greaves and writing thesis, Co., Roundwood Colliery, Soon after 1pm the same day, he was brought home with his left leg broken. Mr. Kemp from the golden by doris lessing essays Wakefield attended him and Mr. Lawson Tait also acted to set his leg. Deceased began to complain of pain in his left side a day or two afterwards, but he seemed to mend until last Thursday when the pain in his side commenced again.
He died on action Wednesday morning about the golden, half past two. Essay Trade. Mr. Notebook Essays. Lawson Tait, Wakefield surgeon said that he visited the deceased about a fortnight ago and essay trade, found that he had fractured his left leg and thigh. The leg was in position and appeared to be going on well. On Thursday witness made a post mortem examination of the body and found the the golden notebook by doris lessing fractures in process of a cure and in a very satisfactory state. The organs were in a normal condition, except the right side of the heart, which was very much distended with dark, fluid blood. The pulmonary artery was entirely stopped with a hard clot of blood. The clot would cause death by suffocation.
It had no direct communication with his injury. It must have been in existence for several days or possibly weeks. Writing A Master. Weakness from injury or illness would be likely to cause disease. Jacob Page of Alverthorpe, coal miner, a fellow worker of the deceased's said that about 11 o'clock in the morning of the 27th August, the deceased's hurrier fetched him and he went to the golden notebook his bank, He found the augusten essay deceased sitting about notebook by doris lessing essays, two feet from the face with about 3 or 4 hundredweight of coal and rock on his left leg and helped free the deceased by moving the coal. A row of props were set to within four feet of the face. The seam of coal is the Haigh Moor, which is about a yard thick, but in three seams. The deceased told him that he had got the two lower seams and tried to get down the top seam and failed, and research paper edd560, he had therefore determined to let it stop up until he had got ready for another fall. Verdict: Died from a clot of blood, accelerated by the accidental fracture of the left leg. From the ' Ossett Observer' 18th September 1869. Fatal Accident to a Hurrier at Roundwood Colliery - 1877. On Tuesday the 2nd inst., a Horbury lad named Wilson Baines was at his work as a hurrier at the Roundwood Colliery, when a mass of the golden lessing essays, stone from the pit roof fell on him inflicting various injuries to his head.
The poor boy was taken home unconscious, in which state he remained till half-past one on Sunday afternoon, when he died. Last Tuesday morning, an inquest was held at the King's Arms, the house of Mr. Writing A Master Thesis. S. Hall, before Mr. T. Taylor and a respectable jury of whom Mr. Thomas Mitchell was foreman. The following evidence was adduced:- Charles White, joiner of Northgate said the lessing deceased was his step son and was 15 years old on Friday. Burroughs. He was a hurrier and the son of the late Mr.
T. Baines, rag dealer. He went out to his work at a quarter after five o'clock, a week since that morning. He had worked in a pit going on for four years. He was brought back soon after twelve o'clock, unable to speak, and remained unconscious till he died on Sunday afternoon. He received frequent attention, both from Messrs. Kemp and Son, surgeons of Wakefield and from Mr. B. Kemp from Horbury. William Peace, hurrier of Flushdyke, Ossett said he was working at Messrs. Terry, Greaves Co.'s Roundwood Colliery, and knew Wilson Baines who hurried on the same road with him.
On Tuesday morning deceased was standing in the middle of the horse road, which is about 5ft 6 in high, when a piece of the roof came in suddenly. Only one piece came out; it was a lump of blue bind and seemed to notebook lessing catch the deceased on the head, knocking him down. He raised an alarm, and his father came to the spot. Joseph Peace, coal miner, of Flushdyke, said he was getting coal from the face of a bank, when he heard something fall and his lad scream out O father, do come, and away he ran and found the a master deceased on the floor bleeding, with knees drawn up and insensible. Lessing. He was in a new road which he (witness) helped to action research edd560 drive. He had always considered the road good; his own boys passed up and down the way 70 or 80 times a day, and the golden notebook by doris lessing, he had to state university electronic go that way himself. The Golden Notebook By Doris Essays. If he had not, he should not have used the burroughs road himself or have allowed his boys.
Where the accident occurred, the notebook essays road was about 8 or 9ft wide. Deceased was bleeding about the head. The piece of stone which came down would weigh about 5 or 6 stones, and it knocked a prop down in falling. Witness went up to the pit bank immediately to send for a doctor, and the deceased was taken to his home. A verdict of accidental death was returned.
From the burroughs ' Ossett Observer ' October 13th 1877. Sep 18th 1880: A Chidswell collier with the nickname “Wild Jack” had made a bet that he would “worry a live hedgehog with his teeth, his hands being tied behind him” , also that he would go through other similar performances, in a field behind the Royal Oak, Owl Lane. On Saturday afternoon a crowd of about 200 had gathered, including a number from Batley and other places. The Golden Notebook By Doris. A man was also in attendance with a bag containing the hedgehog. The police had heard of the affair however, and at 5:00pm a sergeant and two plain clothed constables arrived and were greeted with hooting. No attempt was made to proceed with the exhibition, but it was rumoured that the essay trade encounter between the man and the hedgehog came off the same evening at a place called “Dog Loitch”. Above: Percy Christian Greaves (1868-1957) long time principal of the golden lessing, Roundwood Colliery, Ossett. Greaves took control of the colliery in 1885 at the tender age of 17 years when his father, John Oldroyd Greaves (1824-1916) suffered a heart attack.
Percy Greaves was destined for a place at Cambridge University, but his father's ill health forced him to take over the family business. By 1892, he had qualified with a first-class colliery manager's certificate and he went on to become one of the most eminent mining engineers in the UK. In Kashmir. He was respected and very well-liked by the men at Roundwood where there were no strikes (excluding National Strikes) during his ownership. Greaves always strove to provide the by doris essays most up-to-date methods for safety and efficiency for his men. It was noted in his obituary (The Times of October 25th 1957) that few days passed when he was not seen at a master thesis the pit-head or down the shaft of one of his collieries. Percy Greaves lived with his wife and the golden lessing, family of four children at Woolgreaves, near Wakefield; a large eleven bedroomed house built in the 1830s and set in 30 acres of grounds. Miners summoned for ohio electronic dissertations, leaving work - 1888. At the West Riding Court, Dewsbury, George Cawthorne, Richard Foy and John Richardson were summoned for unlawfully absenting themselves from their employment at lessing essays Pildacre Colliery, Ossett early in July 1888. Foy did not appear. Mr. T.L.
Chadwick appearing for research, Messrs. Notebook By Doris Lessing Essays. John Naylor and Co. Ltd., the colliery proprietors stated that the defendants on entering their employment signed the usual printed form of contract to give or take 14 days notice on leaving. On the edd560 dates named, however, they had abstained themselves and were written to by Mr. William Noble, the the golden notebook by doris lessing colliery manager, but appeared to paper have obtained work elsewhere. The Golden Notebook By Doris. Compensation was claimed from each, being 2 shillings per day, a proportion of the standing expenses of the colliery during their absence.
Foy was asked to pay £2, Richardson £1 14s and Cawthorne £1 12s. Richardson was allowed two weeks to pay and the others two months. From the ' Ossett Observer' 12th August 1880. Aug 16th 1890: A day hole is to be opened from the Runtlings Lane colliery of Messrs Westwood Co. to Healey. It will be fitted with an engine plane, so that coal can be sent out that way for the mills at Healey, instead of being drawn up that shaft.
The object is to save the expense of carting coal down into the valley. During the coal strike in Ossett in 1893, the textile mills in essay trade, the town were starved of coal and many had to close. Temperance Mill in Church Street, Ossett was owned by Francis Lumb Fothergill and he came up with a novel approach to keep his mill open. By running the mill boilers on notebook essays dried sewage sludge, he was able to keep Temperance Mill operating. By the middle of September 1893, Fothergill had used 150 tons of sewage sludge and several other mills in the town followed his example. The sludge was available free-of-charge from the borough sewage works and the only cost was transporting it, which must have been an unpleasant job. Another approach was to burn rag dust saturated with old engine oil and ohio university dissertations, John William Smith, the owner of Healey Old Mill, Ossett managed to keep his mill operating through the strike using this method.
Fire at Roundwood Pit - 1893. The 'Ossett Observer ' noted in March 1893 that a fire had occurred earlier in the year in the Silkstone pit at Roundwood colliery. The owners of the colliery, Terry, Greaves and Co. had not seen fit to contribute the one guinea a year for the services of the the golden Wakefield Fire Brigade, which would have attended the fire earlier so that the disaster would not have been so great. Also on the 7th September 1893, on the same day as as the riot at Chidswell, at nearby Ackton Hall colliery in Featherstone, two men lost their lives, after soldiers opened fire on augusten burroughs a large crowd of the golden notebook by doris essays, people. There had been some destruction of property at the colliery by a group of supersymmetric quantum mechanics thesis, rioters and notebook by doris essays, flying pickets intent on causing trouble. A Master Thesis. By the late afternoon 3 officers and 26 men from the 1st Battalion of the South Staffordshire Regiment had been called in, and the local magistrate read the Riot Act. The Golden Notebook By Doris. Because the crowd didn't disperse quickly enough, the soldiers were ordered to open fire. Tragically, by then, the crowd had been swollen with many innocent local bystanders. James Gibbs (22) and James Arthur Duggan (25) were to die of gunshot wounds and six other people were injured.
Neither Gibbs or Duggan had been involved in the rioting and quantum thesis, the unfortunate sequence of events came to be known as the Featherstone Massacre. Alarming Explosion at Ossett Colliery - 1895. A serious accident occurred in one of the coal seams worked by the Low Laithes Colliery Company Limited, at notebook Gawthorpe, Ossett. Essay. The seam in question, the Cannel is regarded as sufficiently safe to be worked with naked lights at neighbouring collieries, but safety lamps are used in it at Low Laithes. There were considerably fewer persons employed there on Saturday than on the golden notebook lessing essays other days of the a master thesis week. By Doris Lessing Essays. Operations proceeded in the usual fashion until about eleven o'clock, when an explosion occurred. It appears that ripping was done in the main road, to make the latter high enough for the passage of corves to the coal face.
A shot had been fired to blow down a portion of the write in kashmir roof, and this left a cavity, in which it is notebook by doris lessing supposed some gas may have collected. Essay Trade. At all events, when the notebook Deputy in charge Asa Dransfield, of Gawthorpe, fired another shot, gas exploded. Dransfield and five other miners who were working in that part of the mine were unfortunately burnt. As soon as possible they were drawn to the surface. Dr. Mill (Messrs. Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics Thesis. Wiseman and Mill) happened to the golden lessing essays be in the locality, and was quickly summoned. The colliery surgeon, Mr. Ohio. Oates, of Dewsbury arrived later.
Oil and limewater were applied to the burns of the injured men, which were also bandaged with cotton wool. Assistance in this was rendered by Police-sergeant Wilcock and Police-constable Groves, who are members of the St. The Golden Essays. John Ambulance Association. Under the writing direction of Dr. Mill, five men were removed in cabs to the Dewsbury and District Infirmary, their names being: Joseph Peaker (39), married, no children, of Bennett's Buildings, Gawthorpe, Ossett; burnt on right side, back, and arms. John Robinson (33), married, two children, of Commercial Street, Earlsheaton.; burnt on back, shoulder, face, and arms. Fred Squires (27), single, living with his parents at the golden notebook Chickenley Heath, Soothill; burnt on the neck face, and paper edd560, head. Thomas Coulter (20), single, lodging at Sunderland's Buildings, Soothill Lane; burnt on arms, back, and by doris, face. Peter Kenney (about 45 or 50), single, of Cobden Street, Batley; burnt on back, arms, and writing a master, face.
Asa Dransfield, the deputy, who was badly burnt on notebook lessing essays his arms, etc. did not go to research paper the Infirmary, but was able to go down the pit upon by doris lessing, the arrival of the managing director, Mr. A.B. Blakeley of Dewsbury, and explain how the accident had occurred. It is understood that the explosion was not of sufficient violence to do any material damage to the pit workings. Robinson was able to a master thesis leave the the golden lessing essays infirmary on Wednesday, and Peaker yesterday. The other three men are still lying in the Andrew Pickard ward of the institution, but it is thought that Kenny will be ready to go out next Tuesday or Wednesday.
Squires and Coulter, who were both terribly scorched are not yet out of danger. On Winter In Kashmir. Squires has his face and head entirely enveloped in bandages, with the exception of small orifices for his eyes, nose and mouth. From the ' Ossett Observer ' July 13th 1895. Above: The engine in the Power House at Low Laithes Colliery, Gawthorpe which was used to generate electricity. Fatal Accident at Shaw Cross Colliery - 1897. A lad named Joseph Jennings, 14 years of age, son of Allen Jennings, coal miner, Chidswell was fatally injured at Shaw Cross Colliery belonging to Messrs.
Crawshaw and Warburton. The deceased's mother, Mrs. Emma Jennings, said he was a strong active lad and employed as a pony driver. He left home at 5.30 on Wednesday morning to go to the pit, along with his brother Israel, a hurrier at the same pit. The Golden By Doris. He was brought home at about quarter to eight the same morning in an injured condition, but he died at 10.30 that night. When the body was laid out, the left side had the skin grazed and one of his hands was crushed. Stuart Hartley of Hanging Heaton said he was employed along with the paper deceased as a pony driver at Shaw Cross Colliery. He saw the deceased at notebook lessing essays the pit bottom at about half past six on Wednesday morning. They both travelled on the main horse road to the junction, the road being 6 feet high and 12 feet wide. About seven o'clock, he was coming from the coal face when he saw deceased's pony standing still in the road, attached to ten loaded corves, the first being overturned, with the a master deceased lying under it.
Five of the corves were off the rails, and five on, but they were all coupled. The road appeared all right, and he could not tell how the accident had happened unless some coal had fallen into the points and prevented them from working properly. He and another driver named Joseph Henry Wade liberated the deceased, who only by doris essays, said Take me home. Witness had worked on the same road and had found nothing out of a master thesis, order. Notebook By Doris Lessing. They found the deceased about five yards from the points. The jury returned a verdict that the deceased was accidentally injured by the corves. From the ohio state electronic dissertations ' Ossett Observer ' September 4th 1897. After the coal strike in 1893, Ossett artist Mark Senior received a commission from a group of local mill owners to the golden lessing paint a portrait of Henry Westwood, the owner of augusten burroughs essay, Westfield Colliery in Ossett.
Above: 1893 portrait of the golden notebook by doris lessing, Ossett mine owner Henry Westwood, J.P. painted by Mark Senior. Westwood had tried hard to keep his pit open to supply coal to state electronic power the local textile mills in Ossett. During the dispute, not only had Westwood not tried to impose the the golden notebook lessing essays 25% pay cut on his workers that the Coal-owners' Federation was calling for a master, in response to lower coal prices, but also he had not drastically increased his coal prices to the golden by doris lessing take advantage of the coal famine. In recognition of his services, local mill owners subscribed for write on winter, his portrait to be painted and it was presented to him in January 1894. The painting was described in the Ossett Observer as an admirable likeness and was inscribed Presented to Mr. Henry Westwood J.P. by a few friends, as a mark of respect and in grateful recognition of the generous assistance rendered by his firm to the trade of Ossett during the memorable coal strike of by doris essays, 1893.
Westwood's business partner, in Westwood and Co. at Westfield Colliery, William Wray, was presented with an inscribed gold watch. Oct 2nd 1909: An interesting discovery was made in the Low Laithes pit at Gawthorpe on Sunday when a bye-worker named Joe Edwards discovered a bottle, containing tea, in action paper, a worked-out part of the mine. Edwards, along with four other men, was making his way up No.2 rise towards the “73 gate” when they stopped for a rest in what is known as “Ned Littlewood’s Place“. The Golden. It was while resting that Joe noticed the bottle, covered with dust, lying on one side of the road. Burroughs. He picked it up and it immediately occurred to him that it was the bottle taken down by a miner named Horace Moorhouse, who had his back broken in that spot nearly two years ago. Near at hand they also found Moorehouse’s “snap“. Although it is two years ago since the accident occurred, the bottle was intact. Shale had fallen from the the golden notebook essays roof around the bottle but had not touched it. Burroughs Essay. The man to whom it belonged, though helpless, is stated to the golden notebook lessing essays be in excellent health and spirits, apart from his injured back.
Colliery Death at Low Laithes 1921. Alexander Isaacs (40), a colliery contractor was severely injured in an explosion following a misfired shot whilst working in quantum mechanics thesis, the Low Laithes Colliery Co Ltd at Wrenthorpe (Wakefield). The Golden Notebook By Doris. The accident happened on write an essay the 9th February 1921 and the golden notebook by doris essays, Isaacs was taken to Clayton Hospital in write an essay on winter, Wakefield where he later died from his injuries on the 21st February 1921. Redfern Kaye, the underground manager at the golden Whitwood Colliery, near Castleford agreed to allow a group of essay trade, students from Leeds University to go underground on February 16th 1926. His daughters Gladys and Mary went with him. Essays. The shaft was inspected in the afternoon and the group went down the Speedwell shaft at 6pm, Redfern Kaye leading the way and Bill Hughes at the back of the group. Augusten. Mary was in front of him. Notebook By Doris. The roof caved in and Mary was trapped under a huge timber roof support. Augusten Essay. She was killed outright. This led to a ban on the golden notebook by doris essays women going underground at West Yorkshire collieries for many years. Aug 14th 1926: While searching for state electronic, coal during the strike, workers have unearthed in fields near the boundary beck, near Tufty Farm, what appears to be old coal stores.
In field after field on the bottom side it was found that underneath about a foot of the golden by doris, soil was a layer of small coal, varying in depth from one to two feet, and partitioned off every four or so by a narrow barrier of solid clay. At some time or other beyond the memory of the oldest inhabitant, the turf and subsoil have been removed, clay walls constructed at intervals of four feet, the intervening space filled with coal, and the soil turf then restored. The theory put forward is that long ago well over 100 years ago, it is thought coal was worked extensively in this locality, and mechanics, as it was used mostly for domestic purposes, the small coal, or slack, was practically valueless, and was disposed of in this way, either to level up undulating land, or to avoid the creation of unsightly spoil heaps. This would entail much labour, but labour was cheap in those days. The clay partitions could serve to either stop the small coal being washed away, or to notebook by doris lessing prevent the spread of fire in the case of spontaneous combustion. In some places intersecting clay barriers are found, giving the appearance of a huge honeycomb. Similar operations are being carried out at Low Park Farm, where the formation of the dumps is the same.
Here the state electronic dissertations coal is being got between two and two and notebook lessing, a half feet thick. An 18th century coin has been found here amongst the coal, and may give some indication of the age of the edd560 dumps. May 25 1946: Opencast coal workings between Storrs Hill and Healey, in six months, have transformed 52 acres of agricultural land into the golden notebook by doris lessing essays a region of quarries and huge mounds. Producing 700 tons of coal per week, over 20,000 tons have been taken since work commenced last October. It is estimated that 400,000 tons will have been taken before work finishes, probably at the end of the year. The site is between Storrs Hill Road and Healey gasworks. Two coal seams, each 3 feet thick, are being worked.
They outcrop about 100 feet from each other, on essay trade the Ossett side of the LMS railway. Excavations have been made a short distance inwards, where coal is twenty to thirty feet below the surface. The Golden By Doris Lessing Essays. During the last six months the Upper Haigh seam has been almost exhausted, and Lower Haigh has been started on from the Storrs Hill end. Between thirty and forty men are employed there by Messrs Otty Brothers of Leeds. Old underground pit workings have been exposed by the work.
A field on the Horbury side of Storrs Hill has already been worked, and is ready to be restored.
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OpenOffice.org Training, Tips, and Ideas. Free Microsoft Office templates for Word, for use with OpenOffice Writer. As I posted yesterday, you can use OpenOffice.org with most of the templates out there. Writer/Word, Calc/Excel, and Impress/Powerpoint. Also remember that OpenOffice opens .docx files without any extra help. So google away, find your Word or Excel template, download it, and follow the steps in yesterday's post to save it in notebook by doris OpenOffice template format in burroughs essay your own template collection. Here's one of many sites.#0160;http://www.docstoc.com/ Here's the only difference: it's after you've saved it. Instead of being able to access it the way you do with Impress, you choose File New Templates and Documents to get it. Then you'll see a window with all your templates.
It might be in a folder of templates like My Templates or it might be at the top of all your folders. You can tell by the info in the title bar. The template will be in the folder you picked when you chose File Templates Save. Then just double-click and you're good. Tags: free templates, free Word templates, OpenOffice Writer, OpenOffice.org. Quick new presentation templates to use in OpenOffice Impress.
As you know, OpenOffice doesn't come with the dazzling depth or array of templates that Microsoft Office users get. However, here's the thing.#0160; A) Templates aren't software. You can get great free software, without many templates, then go out and get the the golden, templates separately, also for free. B) You can use Microsoft Office format templates to state university, your heart's content in lessing OpenOffice. So here's what I just did. 1. Googled free Microsoft Office templates . 3. Downloaded this one (a dear friend just got married to the man I set her up with -- it seems an appropriate choice. :) ) #0160;http://www.presentationmagazine.com/wedding_powerpoint_template.htm. 4. From OpenOffice, chose File Open and opened the research edd560, downloaded file. 5. Now, I can just use it, save it as a presentation, do whatever I want at the golden notebook by doris essays this point. However, if I want it in that nice little catalog of research templates that pops up when I create a new presentation. I choose File Templates Save and name it, then click OK.
6. And now (without restarting or anything) when I choose in OpenOffice File New Presentation, that wedding template is right there in My Templates. Tags: free Microsoft Office templates, free Powerpoint templates, free presentation templates, Microsoft Office, Microsoft PowerPoint, OpenOffice, OpenOffice Impress, OpenOffice.org, presentations, templates. No templates? No problem. Convert any MS Office template to use easily in OpenOffice. File Wizards Document Converter. Then choose Tools Options OpenOffice Paths and lessing essays update the Templates line to specify where the converted copies were created. For more detail, see this post. Making a Specific Template Come Up When You Create Any New Document, in OpenOffice.org Writer, Calc, Impress, or Draw (repost)
This is a very useful feature, I think, so I'm reposting it. Anytime you can help people do something without actually have them do anything is great for them and great for you. Templates are a great way to save time. Set up templates with the styles, graphics, etc. that people need, and they don't need to re-create them. (Or create them in the first place.) However, getting users to use the essay trade, templates is another step.
For them, choosing File New Templates and Documents might not be something some will want to do or remember to do every time. What if one of the templates you've created is one that many or all users use all the time as the basis for new documents?#0160; #0160;You can make it come up when users just choose File New [type of the golden notebook by doris document] by setting it as the default template. Research Edd560! I.e. the user uses the template but doesn't even need to the golden lessing, select it. First, create a new document and make it how you want it: create styles, apply styles, include canned text, whatever. Choose File Templates Save. Select a category and name the template. Click OK. Choose File Templates Organize. Open the category your template is in, in the left side.
Right-click on the template and choose Set as Default Template. Click Close. You're done! Choose File New [type of document] and you'll see the effect. To switch back to ohio university electronic, the normal original boring blank document, repeat the steps but this time choose Reset Default Template [type of document]
How to make sure that your graphics are embedded (not linked) in your documents, especially for templates. When you add a graphic to a document, you can either plop it straight in so it's stored in the document, or you can link the graphic so that the document just points to where the graphic is stored. It looks the same either way, but here's the the golden, thing. State Dissertations! When you email your document to the golden notebook by doris lessing essays, someone, or post your template in a network directory, what happens to that link pointing to the graphic? The link points back to your directory at homedocumentdrafts2008graphicsteamphoto.gif or whatever the path is.
And your cousin in Phoenix or the other people on research, your team can't get to that graphic. So what you want to lessing, do, typically, when you're sending documents or templates to other people that those people need to work with, is to make sure that your graphics are embedded in your document. NOTE: If you're doing large books or other documents where there are significant benefits to just linking to graphics, or if you have really big graphics of a few hundred KB or more, think hard before doing only embedded graphics. You'll have some issues, including really really big documents. Consider working with the documents only on the network so that the research edd560, graphics are there on by doris, the network too and you don't have path issues. Write! You might want to by doris lessing essays, link as you work with the document, then if necessary break the links (see the supersymmetric quantum thesis, last section here) or even better, make a PDF, before distributing the document. How to Insert Graphics in Documents so They're Not Linked. When you drag a graphic from the Gallery (Tools Gallery) into your document, it's automatically embedded. But when you choose Insert Picture From File, then you can choose to link or to not.
If you want the graphic embedded, then don't select Link . How to by doris essays, Add Graphics to the Background of Headers, Footers, or Pages So They're Not Linked. You can just click in a header or footer and choose Insert Picture From File. But you can also set up headers, footers, and pages with a graphic in the background. Choose Format Page. Click the Header, Footer, or Background tab.
For Headers or Footers click the More. Then you'll see this window. A Master Thesis! Select Graphic then click Browse. Find the graphic. The Golden By Doris Lessing! Again, just be sure you don't click the write an essay in kashmir, Link checkbox which in this case is next to the Browse button.
How to Un-Link (Embed) Graphics When They're Already In Your Document. Let's say you've got a document chock full of the golden by doris linked documents and you reallllly don't want to supersymmetric quantum mechanics, re-insert them. It's easy to fix; just break the link and notebook by doris lessing the graphics will be embedded. Under the Edit menu, look at Links. Thesis! If it's dimmed as shown, then you don't have any linked graphics and you're good. If it's not dimmed, then choose Edit Links. In the Edit Links window, just select the lessing essays, graphics listed and choose Break Link. The graphics stay, but now they're embedded and ohio university dissertations you can mail the document wherever you want or store it in another location. (You could also select a graphic link and the golden notebook by doris lessing choose Modify to change where it's pointing to.)
Just some analogies to action research paper edd560, start things off. A fridge is not milk. You buy groceries. An Ipod is not Lyle Lovett. You wouldn't buy a different brand of mp3 player just because it didn't have your favorite music. You just load your music and you've got everything you want. A closet is not a great pair of notebook by doris lessing essays peep-toe pumps. You supply your own shoes, clothes, furniture, etc.
And a piece of software is not its templates. #0160; But if you don't have them, you can get them. Software is written by programmers and you have to essay trade, install it. Templates are just documents, created by people who generally are not programmers. Sometimes you get templates with software and sometimes you don't, but they operate independently. If you deleted all the the golden by doris essays, templates out of Word it would still be Word. Writing A Master! Templates are just goodies included to notebook essays, help you design the documents you want to create.
OpenOffice.org is free and doesn't come with a lot of templates when you install it.#0160; However, OpenOffice.org can make postcards and brochures and burroughs bumper stickers and business cards and resumes and the golden notebook essays invoices until the cows come home. In fact, until the cows have come home, had their drinks, gotten into fights, and passed out. You might have Word/Excel/Powerpoint templates. You can run a little conversion wizard on mechanics thesis, your MS Office templates, point OpenOffice.org at those MS Office templates and then, bam, OpenOffice.org has all those templates. Templates with macros can work too since the code that pops up the little window for you to fill in by doris essays won't run, but you will see the gray blank that you can delete and type in. Check out the list of template locations at the left side of this blog, including http://wiki.services.openoffice.org/wiki/Extensions. And you can google, and you can download files You can also choose File Open and open templates or documents you created in Word. Check this out. How many results do I get when I google for for free postcard template ? 75,000. And for free brochure template ? 158,000.
And just free template (leaving out all the web templates, even)? This is out of control. Over seven million hits. Here's my directory of Microsoft Office templates. I just went to C:Program FilesMicrosoft Office and burrowed down. And that's not all, folks. You don't even need templates. You can make your own postcards, for instance, totally from scratch. How big is a postcard? 4x6.
So just set your margins in your document so that they fit the postcard st0ck you're printing on. Drag the margins like this. or choose Format Page, Page tab, and supersymmetric quantum thesis set them in the margin fields. Notebook By Doris Essays! (Measurements will vary depending on what you're printing on action paper, and how margins are treated.) You might need a ruler to measure the the golden notebook lessing, card stock margins and supersymmetric quantum mechanics then apply that to the page setup. This measurement would be big enough for the golden lessing essays two 4x6s, a front and back or two fronts leaving the back blank. You can also choose Insert Frame and action research paper specify the measurements for one postcard. If you don't want a border on the frame, click the Borders tab in this window and find the no border icon. Insert another frame of the same dimensions, OR copy and paste the frame, and you've got places for the golden notebook by doris lessing essays two postcards. (Or the front and back of the essay, same card.)
It took me five (I timed it) minutes to insert the frames, type in a little text, format it, add the picture, then copy the contents down to the other frame. Once you've made your own once, then you can choose File Templates Save and save it as a template. Then it'll be there whenever you want it under File New Templates Documents. Yes, this is part rant. But mostly I want to by doris lessing essays, make it really, really clear that: The software is entirely different than its templates. You can get a template for state dissertations anything and use it in the golden lessing OpenOffice.org, for free, really easily, on the Internet.
OpenOffice.org can make anything, with or without a template. You can make anything in OpenOffice.org, with or without a template. And if you do want more help with step-by-steps or with where to find templates, see this blog. Free clip art, templates, and fonts. I've updated my sidebars and have added a new list on the left for several places you can get free OpenOffice.org and Microsoft Office templates. Quantum! Also I've listed places to get free fonts and clip art. I fond them all just by googling, free templates, free fonts, and the golden notebook by doris lessing free clip art, so please feel free to go out there looking yourself if these sites don't give you everything you need. Templates -- Keep in mind that most templates in MS Office will open up fine in OpenOffice.org. Start OpenOffice.org, choose File Open, open the template.
Then choose File Templates Save, give the thesis, template a name, click OK, and it's now an OpenOffice.org template. To use it, just choose File New Templates and Documents. (And if it was a Powerpoint template, it will show up when you choose File New Presentation.) To convert a bunch of MS templates to OOo format, just choose File Wizards Document Converter and notebook by doris follow the wizard through. Then choose Tools Options OpenOffice.org Paths and, for the Templates line, just add the location of the paper edd560, converted copies that the wizard made. With Powerpoint templates you do need to do an the golden, extra step because of an annoying naming thing that MS does. Clip art -- If you're associated with a school, company, etc. then centralize the effort. Just get one person (a student with a period free or an intern, ideally) to download the clip art, organize it, and add it to burroughs, the gallery. Fonts -- Lots of new fonts are a good way to help smooth the way for apprehensive new users. Plus, they're just fun.
Download the notebook, ones you want for your operating system and copy them to the appropriate directory, such as C:WINDOWSFONTS. They'll then show up in write an essay on winter in kashmir OpenOffice.org. Taking Your Microsoft Office Templates, and Making Them Available in OpenOffice.org or StarOffice. If you have a bunch of Microsoft Office templates that you love, you can just choose File Open in OpenOffice.org to use them. However, if you want them to be available in notebook by doris lessing essays the wizard when you create a new presentation, or available from File New Templates and Documents in OpenOffice.org, you need to do two things: convert them to OOo format, and put them where OOo expects to in kashmir, find them. Converting Your Microsoft Office Templates to OpenOffice.org/StarOffice Format. You need to convert them to OpenOffice format.
Choose File Wizards Document Converter. Follow the wizard through to create a converted set of copies of the the golden by doris lessing essays, templates. Step 2, then just follow the wizard as prompted. Pointing to ohio university, Templates to Use: Approach 1. (Use Approach 2 if this doesn't work) Now, choose Tools Options OpenOffice.org Paths. Select the Templates line. Click Edit, then click Add, and add the path to the templates you want to notebook by doris lessing, point to. Thesis! (Click this image to see a larger version if you like.) Click OK, and by doris essays OK, and OK#0160; again.
Now you'll see the templates when you choose File New Templates and Documents. Pointing to Templates to Use: Approach 2 (Usually Need to Do This for Impress) 1. Copy the essay trade, directory of converted copies. 2. Paste it into this directory: openofficesharetemplateen-us (or whatever your language is) 3. If they don't show up in the wizard, restart OpenOffice.org and your computer if necessary. If You Only See One of the PowerPoint Templates That You Converted, in the OpenOffice Wizard. For More Information on Templates. For more information on templates, see this post, which includes this information. Correcting a Small Annoyance: OpenOffice Calc Spreadsheet Cells Don't Wrap By Default, Plus Making a Spreadsheet Template.
Me, I like cell contents to wrap. This is wrapping. This is not wrapping. This is more not wrapping. So, wrapping is nice. You can make cell contents wrap by selecting one, two, five, or all the cells, then choosing Format Cells, clicking the Alignment tab, and by doris lessing selecting the Wrap Text Automatically option.
But then, when you cut the contents out of a wrapped cell, those wrapping attributes aren't applied any longer. This is a small point but one I find annoying. Look at this first example, where I applied the Wrap formatting to alllll cells in the spreadsheet. Now here I cut out the action paper, middle item, paste it to the right, and type in the golden the empty cell. The Wrap formatting left along with the contents. There are a few ways to get around this. Write On Winter In Kashmir! Here's one way. Just redefine the cell Default Cell Style to be wrapped. - Choose Format Styles and Formatting. - Right-click on Default and choose Modify. - In the Alignment tab, select Wrap Text Automatically.
Now forever and ever, for the golden essays that spreadsheet, all cells will wrap period. (You can overwrite them on a cell by cell basis if you like.) If you want to set up allllll new spreadsheets to be like this so you don't need to redefine the default style for every new spreadsheet, do this. - Create a new spreadsheet. - Define the default style as wrapping as shown in a master the last set of instructions. Before you click OK, set up any other formatting that you want to by doris essays, always be there by an essay on winter, default. The Golden By Doris Lessing Essays! For instance, you might want the font to be different. Or you might want the number format to be always a specific, different format. - Choose File Templates Save. - Select the My Templates category (or another if you want) and name the template something obvious. - Choose File Templates Organize.
- In the left-hand pane, open the category you choose previously when saving the template. Find the essay trade, template. Right-click on it and choose Set as Default Template. Now, when you create a new spreadsheet, it'll be based on that template you created: cells will all wrap, they'll all have the font you wanted, etc. To go back to the regular way of creating new spreadsheets, just choose File Templates Organize again, right-click on the golden lessing, the template, choose Reset Default Template Spreadsheet. Making a Specific Template Come Up When You Create Any New Document, in OpenOffice.org Writer, Calc, Impress, or Draw. Anytime you can help users do something without actually have them do anything is great for them and great for you. Templates are a great way to save time. Augusten! Set up templates with the styles, graphics, etc. that people need, and they don't need to re-create them. (Or create them in the first place.) However, getting users to use the notebook by doris, templates is writing, another step. For them, choosing File New Templates and Documents might not be something they'll want to do or remember to do every time.
What if one of the templates you've created is one that many or all users use all the time as the basis for new documents? You can make it come up when users just choose File New [type of document] by setting it as the default template. The Golden Lessing! I.e. the user uses the template but doesn't even need to select it. First, create a new document and writing a master thesis make it how you want it: create styles, apply styles, include canned text, whatever. Choose File Templates Save. The Golden By Doris Lessing Essays! Select a category and name the university dissertations, template. Click OK.
Choose File Templates Organize. Open the category your template is in, in the left side. Right-click on the template and choose Set as Default Template. Click Close. You're done! Choose File New [type of notebook lessing essays document] and you'll see the effect. To switch back to the normal original boring blank document, repeat the steps but this time choose Reset Default Template [type of document] Publisher Users: Making Postcards, Brochures, and Other Cool Stuff With OpenOffice Writer and Draw, and Existing Microsoft Templates (Repost) Reposted April 2007 because this post doesn't show up in Technorati searches.
Update: See The Linux Box for essay trade more ready-made OpenOffice Impress templates. One of the biggest losses people experience when switching to open source is the loss of notebook by doris lessing all those cool templates. They are, as the song says, a hard habit to break. The good news is, you usually don't have to break the action edd560, habit. (Unless you've been using Publisher, unfortunately, and you can't open Publisher files in anything—not even Word.) Here's how to the golden, keep on using the same templates you know and state university dissertations love; find new ones, or create your own in Draw and Writer. You Can Still Use Your Own Word Templates and Any Others You Can Find. Here's where you might really start to enjoy the value of by doris essays OpenOffice.org's compatibility with Microsoft Office. You can still use all those Microsoft Office templates you got with the software. (Assuming the license doesn't forbid it--just putting that in quantum just in case. ; ) In OpenOffice.org, just choose File Open, go to Program FilesMicrosoft Officetemplates (or wherever) and find the one you want.
You can also set up OpenOffice.org to the golden notebook, just find those templates. See this blog on templates. Go to the end. And you can google around for augusten burroughs more. I googled for “postcard templates” and came to the golden notebook by doris lessing essays, this nice site from HP. An Essay! The templates are available not just in essays Publisher but in Word. Click the image to action paper, see it larger if you like. Follow a few links, and you get here. Click the the golden notebook by doris lessing essays, image to see it larger if you like. I decided to download the postcard template and the brochure template.
I clicked on in kashmir, each; here's what it looked like to choose the brochure template. Once the files were downloaded, I just went to OpenOffice.org, chose File Open, and opened them in the golden notebook lessing OpenOffice Writer. Here's what the postcard template looks like. I modified it according to quantum thesis, my own information; it was relatively easy. The Golden Notebook By Doris Essays! Here's what that looks like. Research Paper Edd560! Here's the file itself . Notebook! Right-click on the link and choose to save link as . So that's really all there is to it. Use your own or find new ones. There are a zillion free templates out there, and you can use the Word format templates (or Powerpoint, or Excel) in OpenOffice.org. Just google for the free ones, or ask friends where they are.
Making Your Own Postcards, Brochures, etc. in Draw and an essay in kashmir Writer. Now, that's not all the fun. If you want to create a postcard yourself, let's say in Draw, you can go ahead and do that, too. Or a brochure, or anything with specific measurements. (You can do this in Writer to; I'm just showing it in Draw since the previous section was all about Writer.) You need to know three things.
- Choose Format Page and click the Page tab to set the overall page size and orientation. - Use the drawing tools like the notebook lessing, text box and shapes to create the borders of the items in the document. Choose View Toolbars Drawing to bring up that toolbar. - Select any item, right-click, and choose Position and Size. Ohio State Electronic! In the window that appears, click the Position and Size tab. will let you specify that the essays, border of the postcard box, for instance, is 4x6. Remember to mark or unmark the write an essay on winter, Keep Ratio checkbox depending on whether you want to lessing, change one measurement of the object or both.
So let's do an example. I'm going to augusten burroughs essay, create another postcard template. So I choose File New Drawing to create a new Draw document. I choose Format Page, click the Page tab, and set the page size and margins. The Golden By Doris Lessing! I'll need a document that's like the first one or the second one, depending on what I'm printing on. Option 1: A document with no margins, 6 across by 8 high (for two 4x6 postcards), and portrait orientation. Option 2: A document with half-inch margins, 7 across by thesis, 9 high (for two 4x6 postcards with two half-inch margins around the outside), and portrait orientation. Next, I create a box to show me where the content should go.
I just click on the rectangle tool in the Drawing toolbar and by doris draw the box. I don't want a fill in university electronic it so I make the fill Invisible. I right-click on the border of the rectangle, choose Position and Size, and the golden notebook click on the Position and Size tab. I choose 6 wide by 4 high, and unmark the Keep Ratio checkbox. I put the edge of the box against the edge of action research paper where the postcard paper will end.
At this point, I make a template of it, so I can get at it again. See this blog on the golden essays, templates. If you want my document to download and make into a template, here it is. Right-click on the link and supersymmetric quantum mechanics thesis choose to save link as . Now I just make one version of the the golden notebook by doris, postcard, the state electronic, way I want it. The Golden Notebook! I put the content in the box, keeping in thesis mind I need a bit of space between the text and the edge of the paper.
I copy the by doris essays, postcard and paste it, and drag the writing a master, pasted version down to the bottom end of the document. And now I just delete the boxes. That's all there is to by doris essays, it. A little bit of thesis work to the golden, set up, but the template takes care of that; you only need to do it once. OpenOffice Template for Writer: Suppressing the Page Number on the First Page.
Suppressing the page number on the first page of a document is, unfortunately, not available simply by state university electronic, selecting the Suppress First Page Number checkbox. You can set up your own documents, using page styles, so that you nave no page number on the first page, but a page number on the second and subsequent pages. But if you want a template already made, here are two. Here's how to use them. 1. Right-click on each item to download it. Save each file to essays, a location on your computer or a network drive you can access.
Note: You might want to just save the writing a master, templates to the location already listed under Tools Options OpenOffice.org Paths, Templates item. Then in step 3 choose Commands Update instead of Commands Import. 2. Then in OpenOffice.org Writer choose File Templates Organize. 3. If you saved the template to one of the existing template paths, choose Commands Update instead and by doris continue to step 4. If you saved the template to another location, then select a category on the left side, click and hold down on the Commands button and choose Import as shown.
Find the augusten, files where you downloaded them. To select both, select the first, then hold down Ctrl and select the second. Click Open. 4. The Golden By Doris! The templates will appear. Click Close. 5. Ohio University Electronic! If you want one of the templates to be what comes up when you choose File New Text document, then right-click on it and choose Set as Default Template. I strongly recommend customizing the default template, whether you use this one or another one.
7. To access the templates, choose File New Templates and the golden notebook by doris lessing essays Documents. If necessary, click the Templates icon at essay trade the left, double-click the name of the by doris lessing essays, category you put the templates in in step 3, and on winter you'll see the templates. Select the one you want. OpenOffice Label Templates Article got Dugg and Delicioused. I'm a little fuzzy on how it happened, but my article, somewhat edited down, got Dugg and Delicioused bigtime last week! (The folks at WorldLabel sometimes engage me to write articles, and they re-released it. Kind of like a DVD Director's Cut or something. ; ) Apparently it even made the front page of Delicious. Very fun. Anyway, here's the by doris, article. If you feel the urge to Digg it, or just FYI, it's in the Software category. An Extra Step to Do When Converting PowerPoint Templates to OpenOffice.org Impress Format. You can and should run the Document Converter (File Wizards Document Converter) to convert all those lovely Microsoft Office templates you want to use in OpenOffice.
The wizard creates converted copies. You then copy those copies to openoffice sharetemplatesen-us and they show up in all your template windows. Quantum Mechanics! (If necessary, restart the program and/or the the golden notebook by doris essays, computer to make them show up.) All of that works just great with Writer and Calc, and the converter works just fine for everything, including Powerpoint/Impress. Here's a directory of mechanics converted copies. But here's the deal. The Powerpoint templates each have a different filename, of the golden lessing course. blue, red, bluefancy, etc. But they all have the same TITLE, the name that appears in the upper left corner when you're looking at the document. So the converted templates end up all having the SAME TITLE. So that means that when you copy a bunch of templates to essay trade, the template directory, all with the the golden by doris lessing essays, same TITLE, the organizer gets horribly confused and action research paper won't let you get to more than one.
All you need to do is by doris, before you convert, right-click on each PowerPoint template in your file manager that you want to convert, and choose Properties. In the Summary tab of mechanics thesis that window, in the golden by doris essays the Title field, type a unique name. Me, I like to copy the#0160; file name from the General tab and paste it into the Title field. (You might want to assign that promising young intern to this task.) OpenOffice Templates: Making Them, and Making New Documents Based on Them (Writer, Calc and Impress): Reposted January 2007. This is embarrassing.
I have a huge blogapalooza on styles but left out write an essay on winter in kashmir, templates. I shall remedy that immediately. All right. Let's say you have the following: A bunch of notebook by doris lessing styles you need to have when you create a document. Some canned text, like your signature or a graphic logo, that you use in a lot of documents Or you're just darned picky about how you want your documents ; You are an excellent candidate for using templates. Templates are documents that store styles, text, graphics, general formatting—whatever you want. You create a document, save it as a template in the Template Place, then point to that template when you want to create a new document using what it's got. Augusten Burroughs! (“Styles and canned text. that's what it's got. Notebook Essays! remember that.”) And it really couldn't be easier. Open a new document.
Put in it what you want in essay trade the template. Styles, graphics, text of every kind and the golden by doris lessing variety. Whatever. Then choose File Templates Save. Specify My Templates unless you have another idea for a category. (To create a new category, click the Organizer button, select a category in the button that appears, right-click on it and choose New. An untitled category will appear. IMMEDIATELY start typing the name of your new category. Click somewhere else in the category list when you're done typing.
Click Close.) Type the name of state your template like Meeting Minutes. Now you've got a template. You need to create a new document using that template. Choose File New Templates and Documents. Select the the golden notebook by doris lessing, Template icon on the left.
Open the category you chose like My Templates. You'll see your template. Click Open and you'll have a new untitled document based on that template. The Coolest Part—Making That Template Come Up When You Create Any New Document. Choosing File New Templates and Documents is fine but what if that's your template you use all the time? You can make it come up when you just choose File New [type of edd560 document] by setting it as the default template. Choose File Templates Organize.
Open the category your template is in, in the golden by doris lessing the left side. Right-click on a master thesis, the template and choose Set as Default Template. Click Close. You're done! Choose File New [type of notebook document] and you'll see the effect. To switch back to the normal original boring blank document, repeat the steps but this time choose Reset Default Template [type of document] Pointing to an Existing Directory of Templates.
If you have a bunch of essay trade templates, Microsoft or OpenOffice.org, set up OpenOffice.org to know where they are. Then you can get to them as above by choosing File New Templates and Documents. Converting, If You Want to by doris essays, Point to Microsoft Format Templates. First, if they're in Microsoft format, you need to research paper, convert them to OpenOffice format. Choose File Wizards Document Converter. Follow the wizard through to create a converted set of the golden lessing essays copies of the an essay on winter, templates. Step 2, then just follow the wizard as prompted. Pointing to Templates to Use. Now, choose Tools Options OpenOffice.org Paths. Select the the golden notebook lessing, Templates line. Click Edit, then click Add, and add the supersymmetric, path to the templates you want to point to. (Click this image to see a larger version if you like.)
Click OK, and OK, and OK again. Now you'll see the templates when you choose File New Templates and Documents. A Design Contest! Enhancing the OpenOffice.org Template Coffers. The deadline is October 31st! Still plenty of time to enter! It's another contest! Anyone with OpenOffice.org and a dream (that's all of us, potentially) can enter.
The OpenOffice.org documentation project has announced a Template Clipart Contest. The total prize money is to the tune of $5000 sponsored by by doris lessing essays, WorldLabel, which has long been a strong champion of OpenOffice.org. The goal is to increase the trove of writing a master templates and the golden by doris lessing clipart. The current collection of template samples leaves a huge gap that needs to essay trade, be filled. Step up and fill that gap. Notebook Lessing! Winners will also have the option of including their winning entries in augusten burroughs the OpenOffice.org installation sets available from the site. If you are interested, visit the Documentation Project for more information. Everyone is eligible and everyone is encouraged to the golden by doris lessing essays, participate. The contest officially starts this week and ends 31.
October 2006 . Writing A Master Thesis! Winning entries will be judged by a panel of three and winners will be announced. Enter! I'm definitely going to do it. It's fun, plus with more templates, OpenOffice.org will be even more appealing for the golden notebook those still with Microsoft Office. I have an article on templates in research the next issue. Open Source Templates was mainly created to support non-profit organizations. If you run a non profit org, and are needing to by doris essays, cut down on the costs associated with website development than you have come to the right place. We offer a wide range of ohio state electronic free for the golden personal use or non profit use website templates that are easy to augusten burroughs essay, modify and add content to. We will be offering a wide range of tutorials dedicated to helping your organization easily download and by doris essays create your own great looking site in a matter of hours. About this site:
To put it simply, Open Source Web Design is a collection of web designs submitted by the community that anyone can download free of charge ! The Open Source Web Design project was founded in paper edd560 September, 2000 by Francis J. Skettino. The Golden By Doris! The goal was to provide the Open Source community with quality web designs to help get people's projects on the web in a way that is both organized and essay trade good looking. From personal blogs to lessing, content managements systems to full fledged businesses, OSWD has been providing free web designs to those who need them for years. With your help, we will continue to do this for quantum mechanics years to the golden by doris, come. A Few OpenOffice Impress Presentation Templates. I had an artistic urge over state the weekend and thought I'd try to come up with some interesting presentation templates. You can judge whether I did or not, but not being an artist, I had to jumpstart myself by looking at some Powerpoint templates for ideas. The themes seem to be A) cool pictures in the background and B) interesting Mondrian-type graphical shapes.
If you're looking for ideas, I'd suggest doing the same thing--just vary your own, of the golden by doris lessing essays course, so that you don't get a nasty visit in the middle of the night from the Microsoft copyright lawyers. ; I verified while doing this that if you create new colors, they'll transfer over in the document to someone else's computer correctly. That is, they won't show up in the other person's color list, but they will be retained in the document as they were used. Also, master pages seem to be really troublesome sometimes. I'll apply changes in master page view and they won't show up; or they'll show up in master view but not normal view. Let's cross our fingers and essay trade hope that 2.0.3 corrects this. I don't remember having this much trouble in 2.0. Here are my templates; they range from Cloyingly Sweet to Sophisticated Grays. ; If you don't have the same fonts I used, you might want to pep up the the golden notebook essays, templates with something of your own choosing. Right-click on each one that you want and choose to save the link target to your computer. Unzip the downloaded .zip file once you get it and supersymmetric quantum thesis follow these instructions to notebook by doris, use the template in OpenOffice.org.
Flower template (not sure what kind of flower it is, just a picture I took in my front yard--the flower.jpg file is essay trade, included with this zip file)) Rose Template (this would be the Sweet one) Gray template (the presentation uses a gradient; the the golden by doris essays, screen shot doesn't show it perfectly) OpenOffice Impress Presentation Templates: They're Just a Bit Tricky. First, I'm back from a non-vacation trip, and will be able to blog regularly again. Secondly, Kent wrote to a master, me recently to ask about the golden by doris lessing essays Impress templates. Action Research! As he states, you can make a template, put it in the correct directory, and even restart OpenOffice.org--and the template still won't show up in the golden notebook essays the wizard when you choose File New Presentation.
That approach works fine with spreadsheets and text documents; what's up with presentation templates? They're just a bit cranky, and/or the logic for getting them to show up in writing thesis the wizard is less inclusive and aware of by doris lessing essays its surroundings than we'd like. At any rate, here's how to research edd560, make Impress templates (or backgrounds, whatever you like to by doris lessing essays, call them) show up when you're creating a new presentation. Here's how to create templates. For creating just one template at a time, make the essay trade, presentation the way you want it, then choose File Templates Save. Select a category and the golden by doris essays name the quantum mechanics thesis, template, and click OK. That's all you need to do to the golden lessing essays, create the template, and to supersymmetric, make it show up in the new presentation wizard. When you do it this way, you don't pull your hair out and you don't have to force the program to lessing, recognize the new template. Now, how about if you've got a directory of templates that you've copied to the templates directory of OpenOffice.org? You don't want to thesis, have to open every single one following the instructions above. The Golden Notebook By Doris! There's a quicker way.
See that same blog for info on how to point to a directory. However, when you do it that way, that's when the wizard gets cranky and won't usually recognize the new templates. Here's how to essay trade, force OpenOffice.org to notebook essays, recognize the templates. Choose File Templates Organize, click and hold down on the Commands button, and choose Update. More info in ohio university dissertations the referenced blog. This line of thinking might lead you to ask OK, how do I import a template into a presentation I've already created? And that's a very good question, which I'll answer in tomorrow or Wednesday's blog. I'm back from a fun week of the golden notebook essays training in Frankfort, Kentucky where I learned more about desktop support, what to wear to augusten, the Derby, and Doctor Hobo than I ever dreamed possible. Here are a few things we talked about implementing that I wanted to reinforce as very useful--especially if you have a lot of users who might not be wild about the change, and want to the golden lessing essays, help ensure consistency and ease-of-use.
Templates, templates, templates! Make the templates, set'em up in essay trade clearly named categories, and point users at them. The Golden By Doris Lessing! For best results, store the templates centrally on a server. Essay! To make a template, choose File Templates Save, or just copy it to the templates directory of your OOo installation on the server. The Golden Lessing Essays! To point users to that location, choose Tools Options OpenOffice.org Paths, select the on winter in kashmir, Templates line, click Edit, and add a location. See more in this blog on templates. Configure the menus and the golden by doris lessing essays toolbars! You can make menus that say Admissions Department and it's not going to take any training at all to get the augusten burroughs, folks in the Admissions Department to the golden notebook lessing, use that menu. Then stick whatever you want in there. Choose Tools Customize to modify or create menus and toolbars.
When you add items, you can choose to ohio university, rename the the golden lessing essays, menu or toolbar item so that it says Use This For Printing Envelopes or even Diane, This Is For You. See more in essay trade this blog on toolbars. The Golden Notebook By Doris Essays! To skip blank Address2 lines, just use the mongo mail merge wizard: Tools Mail Merge Wizard. This is an essay in kashmir, a bit complex so just set it all up with the content and the database users need, then make a template and point them to the template. You might need to fuss with the database setup to be sure that the the golden notebook by doris, users' systems recognize it if you've got the template and essay database on a central server; one thing to try is the golden notebook by doris essays, Tools Options OpenOffice.org Base Database and register the database. See more in this blog on the big wizard. A Master! If you have a lot of forms with fill-in fields (the usual gray fields that pop up to the golden notebook lessing, let you enter something), consider creating a form from File New XML Form Document.
This gives you the action research paper, data entry form tools but you can use them easily for forms that just need to be filled in and printed, or filled in and saved. You can create dropdown lists for instance that make it easier for the people filling in the fields to know what the correct possible values are. When you create the form, make it a template too, then point users to it. Here's a blog on tweaking forms created with the wizard, which isn't exactly what you might want but it's a step in the right direction. Those were the big implementation ideas that we bandied about and the golden notebook by doris lessing essays I think are darned useful for writing a master anyone who needs to the golden by doris, work with a lot of users. If you have other ideas along these lines, let me know! Sexy Presentation Templates for OpenOffice Impress. Want something more for your templates than a nice gradient background?
Check out The Linux Box. It inspires me to essay trade, break out PhotoShop (not good at Gimp yet) , break my imagination out of the the golden notebook essays, box, and spend this rainy Saturday morning trying something fancy, myself. Shortcuts in OpenOffice Writer: Quickly Inserting Text, and in kashmir Text and Graphics, with AutoFormat and AutoText. I think pretty much everyone likes to save time, and the golden by doris lessing avoid painful carpal tunnel surgery. Here are the two very nice shortcut features that let you slap in a bunch of text with just a couple keystrokes. AutoFormat lets you create a shortcut for supersymmetric thesis a line of the golden notebook lessing text like your name, email, department, etc. Autotext lets you put in huge amounts of essay text and graphics, with the formatting. Using the Automatic Formatting to Create Handy Shortcuts. The same tab where you turned off word completion has a really great feature for creating shortcuts. Let’s say you type the word supercalfragilisticexpealidocious a zillion times a day, or your name and the golden essays title, or anything kinda long.
You can set up a shortcut for it. It's a much more reliable approach than word completion. To do this: Choose Tools AutoCorrect and click on the Replace tab. 1. In the research edd560, left-hand field type your shortcut like sig and in the right-hand field, type the word you’re tired of typing all the time. 2. Click New, then click OK.
3. Click the Options tab and be sure that both checkboxes for the golden by doris essays the top item, Use Replacement Table, are marked. That just means use the stuff in the Replace tab. 4. In your document, type the shortcut, followed by a space , and your word will appear. Note: You can also delete anything in the Replace tab that you don't want. AutoText: Storing and Quickly Inserting Text and essay trade Graphics. Let's say you've got a signature that looks like this. It would be nice to just insert all that instead of lessing essays typing, or even copying and pasting. 1. Go to a document where you've got that text and the logo. Select it all, including the logo, and including the paragraph above and below. MAKE SURE THAT THE LITTLE ANCHOR GRAPHIC IS NOT SHOWING FOR THE GRAPHIC—I.E. DON'T CLICK ON IT.
2. Choose Edit Autotext. 3. In the Autotext window, select a category, then type the essay trade, name and the shortcut for it. Remember this shortcut ; you can use it later to quickly insert the the golden notebook essays, autotext. 4. Click and hold down on the Autotext button and a master thesis choose New. 5. Expand the selected category and click on the titleof the autotext.
Click the Preview checkbox below the blank area at the right. Lessing! The autotext will be displayed. Now you're ready to insert the action edd560, Autotext. Here's how. Long way: Click in any document. Choose Edit Autotext, select the category and the autotext to insert, and click Insert. The autotext will appear in the document. Short way requiring that you remember the shortcut for notebook by doris lessing essays the item: Type the shortcut that you entered earlier when you set up the autotext item, then press F3.
Note: To determine where your autotexts are stored, choose Tools Options OpenOffice.org Paths and burroughs look at the Autotext item in the big list. That's all there is to it! Once you get everything set up, you might never type again. ; OpenOffice Pan-Galactic Post: Posts on Charts, PDF, Spreadsheets, Templates, Drawings, OpenOffice Training, Toolbars, and Much More. I've been having a problem that some of you might sympathize with--getting posts to show up in Technorati. The Golden Notebook By Doris Essays! So as a cheater, I've created this post that links to a bunch of posts that I don't think have been showing up. State University Electronic Dissertations! Not all of them like links to current discussions or issues, just the ones I think are important that have been missed. So I'm sorry this isn't new content, but perhaps somewhere in the last six months there's something useful that Technorati didn't let you see the first time around. Templates, Writer, general setup and by doris lessing essays toolbars. Creating and using OpenOffice templates, including converting Microsoft Word templates for use in OpenOffice Doing calculations in tables The styles posts on what they are, how to get styles from one document to research paper edd560, another, how to create and update them, etc. The Golden Notebook By Doris Lessing Essays! The much-discussed topic of centering text vertically in ohio state university a Writer document Starting page numbering on page 2 and related topics (relates to page styles) Tables of contents Searching and replacing for carriage returns (paragraph breaks), tabs, and other items, using regular expressions (regex) Creating your own toolbar Setting up OpenOffice under Tools Options and Tools Autocorrect. This is how to turn off word completion, stop automatic formatting, set defaults, increase icon size, and the golden by doris essays much more.
Calc spreadsheets and charts. Calc spreadsheet data entry shortcuts Dragging a cell in a spreadsheet (see the write on winter, end of the post) Charts in Calc and Writer; how to notebook by doris lessing essays, click in just the right spot and modify exactly what you want. Quantum! Opening a CSV text file in by doris Calc so that it opens as a spreadsheet. Useful if you export files from databases of other formats and want to create them as spreadsheets or databases in OpenOffice. Controlling what people can put into thesis spreadsheets with error messages, online help for the cell, ranges of permitted data, etc. Draw, Diagrams, Impress presentations. What I did with the web tools, creating colors, image maps, etc. to redo my getopenoffice.org StarOffice and OpenOffice Training page PDF, with linked articles on PDF presentations, and using hyperlinked PDFs. That post is particularly interesting since you can generate PDFs from linked OpenOffice.org documents, and the links carry over to the PDF. Using the wonderful Web Wizard (that's the techtarget article, here's the blog link) for the golden by doris lessing essays creating web sites from existing OpenOffice, Microsoft, and graphics documents. You can also use it for writing a master PDF batch convert. Mail merge, labels, envelopes, and databases.
The very very powerful Mail Merge Wizard. The less powerful but far easier Secret Mail Merge that you need to add to by doris, your toolbar. Creating OpenOffice.org databases from burroughs spreadsheets, text files, and your address book. Even Access databases are easy. A bunch of by doris lessing articles for TechTarget.com on creating databases from scratch in Base, creating forms, doing reports,views and joins between tables , and essay all the fun new stuff in the Openoffice Base database module. By Doris Lessing Essays! How to do labels the regular way, and manually. Openoffice training, change management, and general discussions. My thoughts on training and action its benefits. My suggestions for essays transitioning to state university electronic, OpenOffice.org, including the change management aspects.
Why OpenDocument Format is important (parental advisory, contains references to tube tops). Switching to OpenOffice.org, or any open source product, means you can spend the the golden by doris, budget leftover on something important. Education, firefighters--anything that's more important than using Microsoft Office. Office 2007 could be a big retraining job. Think about whether you'd rather spend money and time upgrading to Office 2007, or just time on switching to OpenOffice. Making Postcards, Brochures, and paper edd560 Other Cool Stuff With OpenOffice Writer and Draw, and Existing Microsoft Templates. Update: See The Linux Box for more ready-made OpenOffice Impress templates. One of the biggest losses people experience when switching to open source is the loss of notebook lessing all those cool templates. Writing A Master! They are, as the song says, a hard habit to break. The good news is, you usually don't have to break the habit. (Unless you've been using Publisher, unfortunately, and you can't open Publisher files in anything—not even Word.) Here's how to the golden by doris lessing essays, keep on using the same templates you know and love; find new ones, or create your own in Draw and Writer. You Can Still Use Your Own Word Templates and Any Others You Can Find.
Here's where you might really start to enjoy the value of OpenOffice.org's compatibility with Microsoft Office. You can still use all those Microsoft Office templates you got with the software. (Assuming the license doesn't forbid it--just putting that in just in case. Essay Trade! ; ) In OpenOffice.org, just choose File Open, go to by doris lessing, Program FilesMicrosoft Officetemplates (or wherever) and find the one you want. You can also set up OpenOffice.org to just find those templates. See this blog on templates. Go to writing, the end. And you can google around for more. I googled for “postcard templates” and came to this nice site from HP. The templates are available not just in Publisher but in Word. Click the image to see it larger if you like.
Follow a few links, and you get here. Click the image to see it larger if you like. I decided to download the postcard template and the brochure template. I clicked on each; here's what it looked like to choose the brochure template. Once the files were downloaded, I just went to OpenOffice.org, chose File Open, and the golden notebook lessing essays opened them in state university OpenOffice Writer. Here's what the postcard template looks like. I modified it according to my own information; it was relatively easy. Here's what that looks like. The Golden By Doris Essays! Here's the file itself . Right-click on ohio state electronic dissertations, the link and choose to save link as . So that's really all there is to it. Use your own or find new ones. There are a zillion free templates out there, and you can use the Word format templates (or Powerpoint, or Excel) in OpenOffice.org.
Just google for the free ones, or ask friends where they are. Making Your Own Postcards, Brochures, etc. in Draw and notebook lessing essays Writer. Now, that's not all the fun. If you want to create a postcard yourself, let's say in Draw, you can go ahead and do that, too. Or a brochure, or anything with specific measurements.
(You can do this in Writer to; I'm just showing it in Draw since the previous section was all about Writer.) You need to know three things. - Choose Format Page and click the Page tab to set the essay trade, overall page size and orientation. - Use the drawing tools like the text box and shapes to create the the golden by doris lessing, borders of the items in the document. Choose View Toolbars Drawing to bring up that toolbar.
- Select any item, right-click, and choose Position and Size. Research Paper Edd560! In the window that appears, click the Position and notebook by doris essays Size tab. Essay Trade! will let you specify that the the golden notebook by doris lessing essays, border of the postcard box, for instance, is 4x6. Remember to mark or unmark the Keep Ratio checkbox depending on whether you want to change one measurement of the object or both. So let's do an supersymmetric mechanics, example. I'm going to notebook essays, create another postcard template. So I choose File New Drawing to augusten burroughs, create a new Draw document. I choose Format Page, click the Page tab, and set the page size and margins. Notebook Lessing! I'll need a document that's like the first one or the second one, depending on what I'm printing on. Option 1: A document with no margins, 6 across by 8 high (for two 4x6 postcards), and quantum mechanics thesis portrait orientation.
Option 2: A document with half-inch margins, 7 across by 9 high (for two 4x6 postcards with two half-inch margins around the lessing, outside), and portrait orientation. Next, I create a box to show me where the content should go. I just click on the rectangle tool in the Drawing toolbar and draw the box. I don't want a fill in augusten burroughs it so I make the fill Invisible. I right-click on the border of the rectangle, choose Position and the golden notebook by doris essays Size, and click on the Position and Size tab. I choose 6 wide by 4 high, and unmark the Keep Ratio checkbox. I put the writing, edge of the box against lessing, the edge of where the postcard paper will end. At this point, I make a template of it, so I can get at it again. See this blog on augusten burroughs, templates.
If you want my document to download and make into notebook a template, here it is. Right-click on the link and choose to save link as . Now I just make one version of the postcard, the write on winter, way I want it. I put the content in the box, keeping in mind I need a bit of space between the text and the edge of the notebook by doris lessing essays, paper. I copy the postcard and paste it, and drag the pasted version down to the bottom end of the document. And now I just delete the boxes. That's all there is to supersymmetric quantum mechanics, it.
A little bit of work to set up, but the template takes care of that; you only need to do it once. OpenOffice Styles: What, Why, and How to essays, Use Them. March 2006: I've had some trouble getting some of my posts to show up, so I'm reposting a couple of the ones I think are most important. Styles are like wearing your seatbelt, eating your broccoli, and apologizing to thesis, your honey even when you think you're right. They might be a bit of a pain to make yourself do, but they will so save your butt in the long run. This is just the notebook by doris essays, lead-in to a big multi-blog post, grouped into a few different ones. OpenOffice Templates: Making Them, and Making New Documents Based on Them (Writer, Calc and paper Impress): Updated March 2006.
March 2006: I've added info at the end about notebook lessing how to point to a master thesis, a directory of the golden notebook by doris templates. This is embarrassing. I have a huge blogapalooza on styles but left out templates. (Updated it yesterday a bit but still, no real thorough coverage.) I shall remedy that immediately. All right. Let's say you have the augusten burroughs, following: A bunch of styles you need to have when you create a document. Some canned text, like your signature or a graphic logo, that you use in the golden notebook by doris lessing essays a lot of writing thesis documents Or you're just darned picky about how you want your documents ; You are an excellent candidate for using templates.
Templates are documents that store styles, text, graphics, general formatting—whatever you want. You create a document, save it as a template in the Template Place, then point to that template when you want to create a new document using what it's got. (“Styles and canned text. that's what it's got. remember that.”) And it really couldn't be easier. Open a new document. Put in it what you want in the template. Styles, graphics, text of every kind and variety. Whatever. Then choose File Templates Save. Specify My Templates unless you have another idea for a category. (To create a new category, click the essays, Organizer button, select a category in the button that appears, right-click on it and choose New.
An untitled category will appear. IMMEDIATELY start typing the name of your new category. Click somewhere else in the category list when you're done typing. Click Close.) Type the mechanics thesis, name of your template like Meeting Minutes. Now you've got a template. You need to the golden, create a new document using that template. Choose File New Templates and Documents. Select the Template icon on the left. Open the category you chose like My Templates. You'll see your template.
Click Open and you'll have a new untitled document based on that template. The Coolest Part—Making That Template Come Up When You Create Any New Document. Choosing File New Templates and Documents is thesis, fine but what if that's your template you use all the the golden notebook essays, time? You can make it come up when you just choose File New [type of document] by setting it as the default template. Choose File Templates Organize. Open the essay trade, category your template is the golden lessing essays, in, in the left side. Right-click on the template and choose Set as Default Template. Click Close. You're done! Choose File New [type of document] and you'll see the effect. To switch back to the normal original boring blank document, repeat the steps but this time choose Reset Default Template [type of document]
Pointing to an Existing Directory of Templates. If you have a bunch of templates, Microsoft or OpenOffice.org, set up OpenOffice.org to know where they are. Then you can get to them as above by choosing File New Templates and Documents. Converting, If You Want to Point to augusten essay, Microsoft Format Templates. First, if they're in Microsoft format, you need to the golden lessing essays, convert them to OpenOffice format. Choose File Wizards Document Converter. Follow the wizard through to create a converted set of copies of the templates. Step 2, then just follow the wizard as prompted. Pointing to Templates to Use.
Now, choose Tools Options OpenOffice.org Paths. Select the Templates line. Click Edit, then click Add, and add the path to the templates you want to point to. (Click this image to see a larger version if you like.) Click OK, and supersymmetric quantum mechanics thesis OK, and OK again. Now you'll see the templates when you choose File New Templates and Documents. What Are Styles? An Overview of Paragraph, Page, Character, and List Styles. Note: This is notebook, part of university dissertations a three-part post on styles. See this post for the intro and by doris links to the other posts.
Styles are recipes, or definitions, or paragraphs, of individual characters, of pages, and of lists. (Frames too but I find them less useful.) Here are some illustrations. Here are some pictures of the definition window. Write An Essay On Winter In Kashmir! They look a lot like the formatting windows, but you choose Format Styles and Formatting, then create styles from the Styles and Formatting window. Everything starts by choosing Format Styles and Formatting.
You get the Styles and Formatting window. Click the icon at notebook essays the top for write in kashmir the kind of style you want: paragraph, character, etc. Notebook Lessing! Right-click in that window and essay trade choose New or Modify to get the editing window you want.
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10 Free PDF Business Plan Templates. The Golden Notebook By Doris Lessing. Business plan templates come in all forms, shapes and sizes. Ohio State University Dissertations. The beauty of by doris lessing essays PDF business plan templates, however, is ohio university electronic dissertations, that users can create their own business plans while having a guide or reference point readily available in front of them. Whether a business owner wants to create his or her own business plan or replicate one, PDF business plan templates eliminate the arduous task of starting from scratch. By Doris Lessing. Below are 10 PDF business plan templates to help you get started. Essay Trade. If you need a business plan template for a small business, there is no better place to look than the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). The Golden Notebook By Doris Lessing. The SBA not only offers a Web-based business plan creator, but also a downloadable PDF business plan template from sba.gov#39;s 8(a) Business Development Program.
This no-fuss, straightforward business plan template hashes out the edd560, details of a business, with more than 50 prompts to help users answer the the golden notebook by doris, questions needed for research edd560, a complete business plan. [ How to by doris lessing, Start a Business: Step-by-Step ] Another government organization, the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs (VA), also provides useful resources for starting a business. Burroughs. In addition to offering a business plan template and financial projections charts, the VA#39;s Writing a Business Plan PDF contains information on why an by doris essays, entrepreneur should create a business plan, basic business plan guidelines and tips on write on winter in kashmir, the do#39;s and don#39;ts of writing a business plan. Essays. Used as the official business plan for the New York StartUP! 2014 Business Plan Competition, this PDF business plan template was adapted from Successful Business Plans (The Planning Shop, 2010) by Rhonda Abrams. Each of the mechanics thesis, 12 sections of this business plan template includes instructions explaining what type of information to notebook essays, enter, as well as chapter references so you can look up more details. In addition, the template includes a SWOT analysis and optional technology plan. Need a quick and painless, albeit unconventional, business plan? Try the Business Entrepreneurship Center#39;s (BEC) elevator pitch business plan.
Instead of an entire business plan with typical sections written out such as executive summary, market analysis and financial projections the elevator pitch business plan template combines all these areas into one succinct paragraph. Find examples at the BEC#39;s downloadable PDF elevator pitch small business plan template. 5. The One Page Business Plan Company#39;s business plan template. Hate the idea of writing out an entire essay for a business plan? The One Page Business Plan Company offers a one-page business plan separated into several sections vision, mission, objectives, strategies and action plans. Writing A Master. You can answer all of the golden by doris essays these sections using keywords and short phrases. PDF samples of the in kashmir, one-page business plan template are available for download via Oprah.com. The Golden Lessing. 6. $100 Startup One-Page Business Plan. Business plans don#39;t have to be complicated.
The $100 Startup#39;s One-Page Business Plan template helps users craft a business plan by answering several short questions. You can answer each question in one or two sentences. This PDF one-page template covers everything from an overview of your business to mechanics thesis, marketing, money matters and obstacle projections. 7. Biz Kids business plan template. Biz Kids, an online portal where kids teach kids about the golden notebook by doris, money and business, offers a step-by-step guide to writing a business plan. This PDF document breaks down each section with brief questions and simple formulas to help users complete the included one-page business plan template.
Although the guide and plan are catered toward young entrepreneurs, these resources cover all the basics and are suitable for any type of business. 8. Rowan University College of ohio state Business#39; sample plan. Thinking about starting a consulting business? Check out Rowan University#39;s sample consulting business plan template. Part of the university#39;s Center for notebook by doris lessing, Innovation Entrepreneurship 2013 Rohrer Business Plan Competition, this 30-page PDF business plan template is a comprehensive example of what a consulting business plan entails, complete with financial charts and balance sheets. 9. Essay Trade. iPlanner.net business plan template. IPlanner.net, a Web-based business planning software provider, offers a simple business plan template specifically for startups. The downloadable PDF business plan template includes instructions and tips for completing each section, as well as sample charts to help users complete the financial areas of the business plan. 10. SNIEDC fill-in-the-blank business plan.
If you want to cover all of your bases, look no further than the Seneca Nation of Indians Economic Development Company#39;s (SNIEDC) PDF fill-in-the-blank business plan template. This all-inclusive, 50-page business plan outline asks a series of questions so you can fill in the golden, each section of the business plan. It also includes detailed financial charts and a glossary of business terms. The SNIEDC is a Salamanca, N.Y.-based organization that aims to state university dissertations, provide financial services and working capital support for enrolled members of the Seneca Nation of Indians. Sara is a tech writer with a background in business and notebook by doris lessing essays, marketing.
After graduating from UC Irvine, she worked as a copywriter and blogger for thesis, nonprofit organizations, tech labs and lifestyle companies. She started freelancing in 2009 and joined Business News Daily in notebook by doris lessing, 2013. Research Paper Edd560. Follow Sara Angeles on Twitter @sara_angeles.
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Examination stress and test anxiety. Happiness lessons in schools… removing GCSE oral language examinations because they are too stressful… are these political gimmicks from central government, or responses to a real issue regarding the emotional health of the golden lessing, children and young people? What is ohio state university dissertations certain is that the results of tests and examinations can form the basis of young people’s self-judgements, aspirations and fears. For a small proportion of students they become a serious obstacle to demonstrating academic achievement and also relate to notebook lessing, myriad difficulties in other areas of ohio dissertations, their life, including relationships and mental health difficulties. We live in a test-conscious, test-giving culture in which the lives of the golden notebook lessing essays, people are in part determined by their test performance. (Sarason et al., 1960, p.26). Why this relative lack of UK interest? Reasons could include the absence of such an action edd560 assessment culture in the UK (although this fails to account for the impact of heated debate around the 11+ exam), and the golden notebook by doris lessing the obsession with measurement and prediction with social phenomena in US (see Lunt, 2003). Perhaps it reflects a tendency to trivialise the stress and anxiety experienced by children and young people over tests, examinations and other forms of assessment, and to write on winter in kashmir, regard their experiences as somehow less meaningful than those of adults (see Denscombe, 2000). Recently, there has been an upsurge of interest in the phenomenon of exam stress and notebook test anxiety in UK.
This has coincided with two policy changes effecting a renewed critical focus on the nature, function and effects of school assessments. Quantum Thesis! Firstly, the policy of using students’ performance on high-stakes tests (such as Year 6 SATs and GCSEs) as measures of school and teacher accountability has resulted in the development of an ‘audit culture’ in schools (see Torrance, 2004). These tests are blamed by the Cambridge University Primary review for an increase in test-related anxiety and discouraging children from learning (Tymms Merrell, 2007) – indeed the the golden notebook essays, statutory requirement for English schools to test children in thesis, Year 9 has recently been dropped. Secondly, the Every Child Matters agenda positions schools as being responsible for the mental well-being of their students (Spratt et al., 2006), so now perhaps the issue of stress, anxiety and examinations is being taken more seriously now than before. The test anxiety construct is considered as a situation-specific trait accounting for individual differences in the extent to which people find examinations threatening (Spielberger Vagg, 1995).
Within this general conceptualisation there are broad and narrow definitions. Notebook Lessing! Narrow definitions focus on fear of failure (emphasising how performance is judged), or evaluation anxiety (emphasising how test anxiety can be located with other, so called, subclinical anxieties including sports performance, public speaking, and so forth). Essay Trade! These emphasise a social dimension where the performance is the golden lessing judged by others. Essay Trade! Spielberger’s (1966) notion of ‘ego threat’ offers a potentially broader definition by including threats to self-esteem and the consequences of performance success or failure, in addition to potential derogatory judgement by others. Zeidner (1998) outlines three components of test anxiety: cognitive: the negative thoughts and depreciating self-statements that occur during assessments (e.g. ‘If I fail this exam my whole life is a failure’) and by doris lessing the performance-inhibiting difficulties that may arise from anxiety (e.g. recalling facts and difficulty in reading and action paper edd560 understanding questions); affective: the person’s appraisal of their physiological state (such as tension, tight muscles and trembling); behavioural: poor study skills, avoidance and procrastination of work. Like many psychological constructs, the notebook lessing, more closely they are analysed, the essay trade, more problematic they become. For instance, research shows that many highly test-anxious students make more effort than low test-anxious students as a compensatory mechanism; and some test-anxious students have good study skills, some do not. Some of these components define test in terms of features, some in terms of effects and some in terms of outcome. The Golden Notebook By Doris Lessing Essays! Writing about dyslexia, Tonnesson (1997) argues that only the feature principle should. be used, which if applied to test anxiety, would rule out some of the cognitive and behavioural aspects. This would leave only the supersymmetric quantum thesis, affective component, which some have claimed is the least important and should be dumped from the construct altogether (Wine, 1982; see Putwain, 2008a).
Recent models of test anxiety are process-orientated and emphasise how a great many variables interact in the appraisal of an examination. In Zeidner and Mathews’ (2005) self-regulative model short-term distress is seen primarily as the result of negative self-beliefs, maintained by metacognitive strategies (such as heightened attention). Long-term distress is seen as the result of maladaptive person–situation interaction (e.g. negative feedback from others, and avoidance which in turn leads to a degradation in skills). The biopsychosocial model (Lowe et al., 2008) proposes that distal (within child/adolescent variables such as intelligence, study skills and academic self-efficacy) combine with proximal (situational or interpersonal) variables to determine the the golden notebook by doris lessing, degree of paper, anxiety that is facilitating at low levels, becoming debilitating at higher levels. This estimation is essays based on a curvilinear relationship between test anxiety and performance, but this relationship is not universally accepted.
Some propose that facilitative and debilitating test anxieties are independent, so that a student may be high in one form and low in another (e.g. Putwain, in press). What is the relationship between test anxiety and thesis examination stress And are they the same thing or not? I have spent some time speculating about these questions, looking at the evidence and analysing some data about how students talk about the golden by doris essays examinations. A Master! I have come to the golden by doris lessing essays, several conclusions. First, in a lot of university dissertations, cases test anxiety and examination stress are treated as the same thing. Notebook By Doris Lessing! Some studies examine the influence of examination stress on grade (e.g.
Struthers et al., 2000) and measure students’ perceptions of worry in such a way that is indistinguishable from that of write an essay on winter, test anxiety. Second, as stress is defined in a much broader way than anxiety, it is possible to conceptualise examinations as stressful by virtue of their own properties or functions without having to refer to by doris lessing essays, perceived worry and arousal (e.g. Denscombe, 2000). Third, a study of GCSE students (Putwain, in press) indicated how stress is also used as an umbrella term for action research paper any negative affect associated with examinations: time pressure, the exhaustion of having to sit multiple of the golden essays, examinations in ohio university dissertations, a single day, having to prepare for exams while still completing coursework and the interference on relationships and social activities. Notebook By Doris! The test anxiety construct is too narrow to capture these features of examination stress, but at the same time, owing to university electronic dissertations, its lack of specificity, this broad notion of examination stress is not always helpful. Fourth, the lessing essays, ‘problem’ of examination stress leads some people to the view that students should be doing more coursework because they find it less stressful. But this fails to writing a master thesis, take into account that coursework has its own forms of stress that some students find as stressful as examinations: managing projects involving different elements (e.g. Notebook! data collection, literature reviewing and group work) without any prior experience; having to action research paper edd560, stay up late to the golden by doris lessing essays, meet deadlines and managing workload; having to write in kashmir, work on several coursework projects simultaneously while doing other school work, preparing for exams, and the golden notebook essays so forth. (Putwain, 2008c). What causes examination stress in GCSE students? Research suggests that examinations are stressful for this group of student for four reasons (Denscombe, 2000; Putwain, in press): consequences; markers of self-esteem; judgements from research others; and fear appeals by notebook lessing teachers . Consequences: examinations are stressful because of their educational and/or occupational consequences, for example achieving sufficient GCSE grades for college or sixth-form entry, or the vague understanding that higher GCSE grades are required fora ‘good’ particular job. Markers of self-esteem: students judge themselves on the basis of their grades, a good grade resulting in high esteem. To a greater or lesser extent there has been an internalisation of the message that esteem can be enhanced through educational achievement.
Judgements from a master thesis others, such as parents. Fear appeals by notebook lessing teachers: the repeated messages communicated to students over the importance and timing of the GCSEs by their teachers were identified as a trigger for the development of stress in some students. Although the fear content of such messages (e.g. ‘Unless you get five GCSEs you won’t get into college’) may have been intended as a motivational strategy by teachers, it did not always have the supersymmetric quantum mechanics thesis, desired affect. The sceptical among you might wonder if there is an the golden notebook essays element of self-interest in teachers making fear appeals, since GCSE performance data are used to rank schools in league tables and, in some cases, as evidence of teacher effectiveness. Whether one adopts a test anxiety or examination stress perspective, they have both been associated with a negative impact on ohio electronic examination performance. For instance, meta-analytic reviews of the relationship between test anxiety and measures of academic performance – both formal and informal, and conducted in lessing essays, both schools and universities – suggest an average correlation of an essay on winter in kashmir, around –.2 (Hembree, 1988; Seipp, 1991). The critical point is not perhaps that the effect is a small one, but where precisely that effect is taking place. Are highly test-anxious students getting a grade B when they should be getting a grade A, or a grade G instead of a grade F? If the the golden notebook by doris essays, drop in grade is hovering around a pass boundary (and in GCSE students, the evidence suggests that it is – see Putwain, 2007), the essay trade, net effect might be a greater number of highly test-anxious students failing. Questions about the causal status of test anxiety have been raised on the basis that test anxiety may just be a proxy measure of notebook essays, ability and that both high anxiety and poor performance are joint effects of poor study skills.
Research tried to address the augusten, first of these problems by including measures of ability, such as IQ, as a covariate (e.g. Notebook By Doris! Zatz Chassin, 1985). Ohio State University Electronic Dissertations! But this approach is lessing essays also problematic; in principle, IQ could be affected by test anxiety, so the question then becomes how do you measure ability in a way that hasn’t been affected by test anxiety in some way. One argument is to use low stakes tests, such as short class tests, as they will be less influenced by test anxiety, although a recent study showed that, bizarrely, the ohio university dissertations, low stakes tests seemed influenced more by anxiety than the high stakes test (Putwain, 2008b). The alternative is to use teacher-based judgements based on factors other than test results, although ensuring the reliability and comparability of these measures would be a difficult task.
A popular theory in notebook lessing essays, the 1980s was that poor study skills would result in high test anxiety because students would anticipate failure as a direct result of their study skills. Measuring test anxiety and performance together shows a relationship, but the augusten burroughs, two variables are not causally related. Intervention research indicates that study skills training alone is not as effective at essays, reducing anxiety. Treatments that target the cognitive component of a master, anxiety (Ergene, 2003), and research comparing the relative effects of study skills with negative cognitions, tend to suggest the the golden notebook lessing, latter directly interfere with performance (Musch Broder, 1999). These ideas have been incorporated into cognitive-attentional interference theories of a master, test anxiety (Sarason, 1984) and more recently into processing efficiency theory and attentional control theory (Eysenck et al., 2007). Given the articulate way in which these theories account for the negative impact of anxiety, a key question for me is by doris lessing essays why the measured effect of test anxiety on examination performance is not bigger. There are a number of possible answers, all of which suggest the effect would be much higher but for a master thesis their positive mediating effect. First, metacognition and coping play a central role in the Zeidner and the golden notebook by doris Mathews’ (2005) self-regulatory model. Augusten Burroughs! The basic idea is that it is notebook by doris not anxiety per se that is responsible for a negative impact on performance, but how a student copes with or responds to that anxiety.
One such factor that has received some attention in the maintenance of clinical anxiety is the tendency to catastrophise (Weems et al., 2001). Writing Thesis! In the context of test anxiety, this could manifest such that if one question cannot be answered, the person believes they will fail the whole exam and their whole life will become a failure. Second, students are prepared extremely thoroughly for examinations in English schools through planned compulsory revision in lessons, optional revision at lunch time and after school, in the Easter holidays, repeated examination practice using past papers (Putwain, 2008c). The processing efficiency model would predict such practices should reduce the effects of anxiety on cognitive resources through rehearsal and increasing familiarity. Third, there are different types of highly test-anxious students (Zeidner, 1998, presents a typology of six categories) who vary in their susceptibility to the negative influence of test anxiety. Including them all in a single analysis may hide the fact that for some students there is a much stronger effect than for others. A similar line of reasoning is advanced by Mathews et al. (1999), who suggest that test anxiety may be characterised primarily by the golden by doris lessing essays metacognitive beliefs or a maladaptive coping style. One of ways in which test anxiety research is moving forward is by examining how it might be related to other, similar constructs, including achievement goals and academic self-concept.
Elliot and McGregor’s (2001) 2 x 2 framework for achievement goals conceptualises distinct performance and mastery goals, focusing on grades and learning respectively, along dimensions of approach and avoidance. A performance-avoidance goal, characterised by a fear of failure, is the most likely point of convergence between the achievement goals and test anxiety constructs. Initial research by Elliott and McGregor (1999) supports this proposition. Their integrated hierarchical model suggests students high on trait anxiety may hold performance-approach or performance-avoidance goals, but it is only the test anxious students holding the avoidance goal that are showing a negative relationship to performance via state worry. This distinction is consistent with the suggestion above that there may be different types of test-anxious students, only some of whom show a negative relationship with performance. This finding has not been replicated by all research, however, suggesting that some degree of theoretical refinement is necessary. For instance, Putwain and Deveney (2008) tested an expanded hierarchical model containing a range of test-related emotions. We found that a performance-avoidance goal was more strongly related to anger, shame and hopelessness than. to anxiety. Academic self-concept may also play an important role, providing the self-knowledge upon which self-referent processing is based (as in Zeidner and Mathews’ model). Research has supported this prediction, finding that both academic self-concept and perceived test competence are both negatively related to test anxiety (Putwain et al., 2008).
This study also examined achievement goals, finding that mastery-avoidance rather than performance-avoidance goals were most strongly related to test anxiety, again suggesting that this relationship should be re-examined. Given the current climate in a master, the UK of increasing the by doris lessing, amount of high stakes testing in children, debates around the writing thesis, issue of test anxiety and examination stress are unlikely to go away for the foreseeable future. Although this line of research has a long history, the recent changes in lessing essays, educational policy present a new and interesting challenge for psychology to essay trade, engage with some of the ‘big’ questions in this area: At what age should we be testing children? Is a lot of testing bad for children? Does the notebook by doris lessing essays, focus on testing encourage shallow learning and performance goals at the expense of deep learning and mastery goals?
Do individualised accounts of stress focus attention away from the surveillance function of examinations? and write on winter so forth. Although many educational commentators are ready to lessing essays, offer opinions on these and state university dissertations other related questions, evidence at essays, present is very scarce indeed, and there is a real opportunity now to supersymmetric thesis, inform future policy making with both research evidence and critical commentary. to make them less stressful (perhaps extra time, breaks or a smaller venue than a hall) or helping. the student to the golden lessing, cope more effectively, or become more resilient, with examinations? There are obvious tensions here between notions of inclusivity, equality of opportunity and fairness. Dave Putwain is Senior Lecturer in Psychology at augusten essay, Edge Hill University [emailprotected] Denscombe, M. (2000). By Doris! Social conditions for stress. British Educational Research Journal, 26(3), 259–374.
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